Phthalic acid esters content in yoghurt with chia flour and bamboo fiber during storage time
Keywords:yogurt, dietary fiber, contaminant, dibutylphthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Phthalic acid esters are plasticizers, they can migrate freely from plastic to their surroundings. They have negative health effects. European legislation sets specific migration limits for phthalic acid esters. In our study, we deal with two esters of phthalic acid, dibutylphtalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). It was studied the effect of storage of four types of yoghurt on the concentration of phthalic acid esters. Yoghurts contained 1% chia flour, 5% chia flour, 1% bamboo fiber and 5% bamboo fiber. Yoghurts were stored in plastic cups, which contained both examined phthalic acid esters. Esters of phthalic acid were determined after 1 week of storage then after 2 weeks of storage and in the original raw material. Furthermore, the pH of the yoghurt was determined. The pH values ”‹”‹were correlated with phthalate concentrations: the correlation coefficient for DBP with a pH of -0.0265 and for DEHP with a pH of 0.3075. Mean concentrations of DEHP decreased over time, while DBP decreased for yoghurt with 1% chia flour, while in other cases they increased. The mean DBP concentrations in yoghurt were higher than the average concentrations of DEHP. Comparing the mean sample values ”‹”‹with t-test for dependent samples for yoghurt of the same type, when comparing the DBP or DEHP concentration in week 1 with the DBP or DEHP concentration at week 2, the mean values ”‹”‹were consistent. It can be noted that there was no increase in DEHP concentrations from cups to yoghurts, which was probably due to a lower concentration in cups than the DBP concentration. DBP concentrations increased in 3 of the 4 types of yoghurt. The determined pH in yoghurts did not differ significantly. Apparently a greater effect on the migration of phthalic acid esters will have in our case a different yoghurt consistency than pH. It would be appropriate to examine the effect of food density on the migration of phthalic acid esters. Likewise, it would be appropriate to examine the effect of pH but in the same food with different pH on the migration of phthalic acid esters.
Andrady, A. L., Neal, M. A. 2009. Applications and societal benefits of plastics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526, p. 1977-1984. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0304 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0304
ATSDR, 2001. Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate [online] 2001-10-04. [cit. 2017-12-04] Available at: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp135.pdf.
ATSDR, 2002. Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate [online] 2001-06-06. [cit. 2017-12-05] Available at: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp9.pdf.
Benson, R. W. 2014. Hazards of Food Contact Material: Phthalates. In Motarjemi, Y., Moy, G., Todd, E. Encyclopedia of Food Safety, London, UK : Elsevier, p. 438-443. ISBN 9780123786135. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-378612-8.00219-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-378612-8.00219-5
Betteridge, V. A., Caers, W., Lupton, J. R., Slavin, J. L., Devries, J. 2012. Implementation Issues of the Codex Definition of Dietary Fiber: Degree of Polymerization, Physiological, and Methodological Considerations. In Cho, S. S., Almeida, N. Dietary fiber and health. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, p. 19-32. ISBN 9781439899373. https://doi.org/10.1201/b12156-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/b12156-4
Bošnir, J., Puntarić, D., Škes, I., Klarić, M., Šimić, S., Zorić, I. 2003. Migration of phthalates from plastic products to model solutions. Coll. Antropol., vol. 27, p. 23-30. PMid:12955888
Brimer, L. 2011. Contaminants from processing machinery and food contact materials. In Brimer, L. Chemical food safety. Cambridge, MA : CABI, p. 191-195. ISBN 978-1-84593-676-1. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845936761.0191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845936761.0191
Cadogan, D. 2002. Health and environmental impact of phthalates. Plastics, Additives and Compounding, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 28-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-391X(02)80091-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-391X(02)80091-5
Clark, K. E., David, R. M., Guinn, R., Kramarz, K. W., Lampi, M. A., Staples, C. A. 2011. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 923-965. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2011.588157 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2011.588157
Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. OJ L 12, 15.1.2011, p. 1-89.
Dhingra, D., Michael, M., Rajput, H., Patil, R. T. 2012. Dietary fibre in foods: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 49, no. 3, p. 255-266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0365-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0365-5
Fromme, H., Küchler, T., Otto, T., Pilz, K., Müller, J., Wenzel, A. 2002. Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment. Water Research, vol. 36, no. 6, p. 1429-1438. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00367-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00367-0
Gajdůšková, V., Jarošová, A., Ulrich, R. 1996. Occurrence of phthalic acid esters in food packaging materials. Potrav. Vědy, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 99-108.
Hauser, R., Calafat, A. M. 2005. Phthalates and human health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 62, no. 11, p. 806-818. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2004.017590 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2004.017590
Hines, C. J., Hopf, N. B. N., Deddens, J. A., Silva, M. J., Calafat, A. M. 2011. Estimated daily intake of phthalates in occupationally exposed groups. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2009.62 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2009.62
Holm, V. K. 2010. Shelf Life of Foods in Biobased Packaging. In Robertson, G. L. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, p. 353-365. ISBN 1420078445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420078459-c19
Jandlová, M., Kumbár, V., Jarošová, A., Pytel, R., Nedomová, Š., Ondrušíková, S. 2017. The sensory evaluation of yoghurts with chia flour, quinoa flour, nopal powder, apple fiber and bamboo fiber. MendelNet 2017: Proceedings of International PhD Students Conference. Brno : Mendel University in Brno, p. 547-552. ISBN 978-80-7509-529-9.
Jarošová, A., Gajdůšková, V., Razsyk, J., Sevela, K. 1999. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate in the tissues of pigs and broiler chicks after their oral administration. Veterinary Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 61-70.
Kamrin, M. A. 2009. Phthalate Risks, Phthalate Regulation, and Public Health: A Review. In Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 157-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937400902729226 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10937400902729226
Koch, H. M., Drexler, H., Angerer, J. 2003. An estimation of the daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates in the general population. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 206, no. 2, p. 77-83. https://doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00205
Larsson, K., Lindh, C. H., Jönsson, B. A. G., Giovanoulis, G., Bibi, M., Bottai, M., Bergström, A., Berglund, M. 2017. Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure. Environment International, vol. 102, p. 114-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.006
Martino-Andrade, A. J., Chahoud, I. 2010. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 54, no. 1, p. 148-157. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200800312 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200800312
McKinley, M. C. 2005. The nutrition and health benefits of yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2005.00180.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2005.00180.x
Meeker, J. D., Sathyanarayana, S., Swan, S. H. 2009. Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526, p. 2097-2113. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0268 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0268
Mikula, P., Svobodová, Z., Smutná, M. 2011. Phthalates: toxicology and food safety - a review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 217-223. https://doi.org/10.17221/3394-CJFS DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/3394-CJFS
Petersen, J. H. 2003. Migration of Compounds from Food Contact Materials and Articles. In D'Mello, J. P. F. Food safety: contaminants and toxins. Cambridge, MA : CABI Publishing, p. 271-291. ISBN 0851996078. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851996073.0271PMid:14568993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851996073.0271
Piotrowska, B. 2005. Toxic Components of Food Packaging Materials. In Dąbrowski, W. M., Sikorski, Z. E. Toxins in Food. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, p. 313-333. ISBN 978-0-8493-1904-4.
Przybylińska, P. A., Wyszkowski, M. 2016. Environmental contamination with phthalates and its impact on living organisms. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 347-356. https://doi.org/10.1515/eces-2016-0024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/eces-2016-0024
Pytel, R., Cwiková, O., Ondrušíková, S., Nedomová, Š., Kumbár, V. 2018. Effect of additives to microbiological quality of yogurts. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 186-194. https://doi.org/10.5219/886 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/886
Rastkari, N., Jeddi, M. Z., Yunesian, M., Ahmadkhaniha, R. 2017. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on Release of Phthalate Ester into Packed Acidic Juice. Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 562-569. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5128 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5128
Schecter, A., Lorber, M., Guo, Y., Wu, Q., Yun, S. H., Kannan, K., Hommel, M., Imran, N., Hynan, L. S., Cheng, D., Colacino, J. A., Birnbaum, L. S. 2013. Phthalate Concentrations and Dietary Exposure from Food Purchased in New York State. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 121, no. 4, p. 473-479. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206367 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206367
Schettler, T. 2006. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. International Journal of Andrology, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00567.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00567.x
Sharman, M., Read, W. A., Castle, L., Gilbert, J. 1994. Levels of di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese. Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 375-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652039409374236 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02652039409374236
Sørensen, L. K. 2006. Determination of phthalates in milk and milk products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 20, no. 7, p. 1135-1143. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2425 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2425
Velíšek, J. 2002. Food chemistry III. 2nd ed. Tábor, Czech Republic : OSSIS. 343 p. ISBN 80-86659-03-8.
Velíšek, J., Hajšlová, J. 2009. Food chemistry II. 3rd ed. Tábor, Czech Republic : OSSIS. 623 p. ISBN 978-80-86659-16-9.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).