The effect of calcium and magnesium supplementation on performance and bone strength of broiler chickens
Keywords:poultry nutrition, Ross 308, liver, CaCO3, MgSO4
Aim of the experiment was evaluation of the effect of reduced calcium and magnesium content in the broiler chickens diet on its parameters of fattening, bone strength and calcium and magnesium content in liver. The trial was performed with cockerels of Ross 308 hybrid (n = 160) which were fattened in cage batteries from day 11th to 36th day of age. Cockerels were divided into 4 groups (differ in various intake levels of calcium and magnesium) in four replications. The maize-wheat-soybean basal diet contained 2.33 g Ca and 1.58 g Mg per kilogram. Calcium was added by CaCO3 and magnesium by MgSO4. Control group (C) received feed mixture with added CaCO3 in dose of 19.49 g.kg-1 and 0.41 g.kg-1 of MgSO4. Three experimental groups contain added CaCO3 in dose of 11.83 g.kg-1 and 0 g.kg-1 MgSO4 (group Exp1); CaCO3 11.83 g.kg-1 and 0.41 g.kg-1 MgSO4 (group Exp2); CaCO3 19.49 g.kg-1 and 0 g.kg-1 MgSO4 (group Exp3), respectively. The feed consumption was daily monitored and the cockerels were weighed twice a week. At the end of the study the experimental animals were weighted and slaughtered by decapitation. The weight of carcasses, liver and proportion of breast and thigh muscle was determined in the selected chickens (n = 24). The atomic absorption spectrometry was used for Ca and Mg evaluation in liver tissues. Bone strength parameter was measured at the femur bone. The statistically significant differences (p >0.05) were not detected between control and experimental groups in the case of studied parameters of fattening, bone strength and calcium and magnesium content in the chicken´s liver. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded the reduction of determined elements in the chicken diet did not deteriorate parameters of yield, elements content in liver tissue as well as the bone strength of broiler chickens.
Akter, M., Graham, H., Iji, P. A. 2016. Response of broiler chickens to different levels of calcium, non-phytate phosphorus and phytase. British Poultry Science, vol. 57, no. 6, p. 779-809. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1216943
Askari, M., Khatibjoo, A., Taherpoor, K., Fattahnia, F., Souri, H. 2015. Effects of Calcium, Phosphorus and Zinc in Wheat ‐ Based Diets b on Broiler Chickens' Performance, Immunity and Bone Parameters. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 723-730.
Aviagen Group. 2014. Technological procedure for broiler Ross [online]. Aviagen Group [cit. 2016-11-15]. Available at: http://en.aviagen.com/ross-308.
Bo, S., Pisu, E. 2008. Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f33ccc
Guerrero-Romero, F., Rodriguez-Moran, M. 2002. Low serum magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome. Acta Diabetologica, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 209-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005920200036
Horký, P. 2015. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 324-329. https://doi.org/10.5219/492
Horký, P. 2014. Influence of increased dietary selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and glutathione concentration in erythrocytes of lactating sows. Annals of Animal Science, vol. 14, no. 4, p. 869-882. https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2014-0056
Horký, P., Jančíková, P., Sochor, J., Hynek, D., Chavis, G J., Ruttkay-Nedecký, B., Cernei, N., Zítka, O., Zeman, L., Adam, V., Kizek, R. 2012. Effect of organic and inorganic form of selenium on antioxidant status of breeding boars ejaculate revealed by electrochemistry. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 7, no. 10, p. 9643-9657.
Horky, P., Sochor, J., Skladanka, J., Klusonova, I., Nevrkla, P. 2016. Effect of Selenium, Vitamin E and C on Antioxidant Potential and Quality of Boar Ejaculate. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 29-36. https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/65584/2016
Hurwitz, S., Plavnik, I., Shapiro, A., Wax, E., Talpaz, H., Bar, A. 1995. Calcium metabolism and requirements of chickens are affected by growth. Journal Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 10, p. 2679-2686. PMid:7562105
Chakraborti, S., Chakraborti, T., Mandal, M., Mandal, A., Das, S., Ghosh. S. 2002. Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: a review. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 238, no. 1, p. 163-79. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019998702946 PMid:12349904
Liu, Y., Guo, Y., Wang, Z., Nie, W. 2007. Effects of source and level of magnesium on catalase activity and its gene expression in livers of broiler chickens. Archives of Animal Nutrition, vol. 61, no. 4, p. 292-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390701432019
Majewska, D., Szczerbińska, D., Ligocki, M., Bucław, M., Sammel, A., Tarasewicz, Z., Romaniszyn, K., Majewski J. 2016. Comparison of the mineral and fatty acid profiles of ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers. British Poultry Science, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1154136
Nevrkla, P., Čechová, M., Hadaš, Z. 2014. Use of repopulation for optimizing sow reproductive performance and piglet loss. Acta Veterinaria Brno, vol. 83, no. 4, p. 321-325. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201483040321
Nevrkla, P., Čechová, M., Wasilewski, P. D., Michalska, G., Nowachowicz, J. 2016. Carcass traits and meat quality of pigs fed on fodder supplemented with sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid. Journal of Central European agriculture, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 598-608. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/17.3.1749
Mcdonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., Morgan, C. A., Sinclair, L. A., Wilkinson, R. G. 2011. Minerals. In Mcdonald, P. et al. Animal nutrition. Wisconsin-Madison : Longman Scientific and Technical, p. 103-137, ISBN-9781408204238.
Peters, J. C., Mahan, D. C. 2008. Effects of dietary organic and inorganic trace mineral levels on sow productive performance and daily mineral intakes over six parities. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 86, no. 9, p. 2247-2260. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0431
Ruttanavut, J., Yamauchi, K. 2010. Growth performance and histological alterations of intestinal villi in broilers fed dietary mixed minerals. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 96-106. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2010.96.106
Rama Rao, S. V., Raju, M. V. L. N., Reddy, M. R., Pavani, P. 2006. Interaction between dietary calcium and non-phytate phosphorus levels on growth, bone mineralization and mineral excretion in commercial broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 131, no. 1, p. 135-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.02.011
Sahin, K., Onderci, M., Sahin, N., Gulcu, F., Yildiz, N., Avci, M., Kucuk, O. 2006. Responses of quail to dietary vitamin E and zinc picolinate at different environmental temperatures. Animal Feed Science Technology, vol. 129, no. 1, p. 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.11.009
Salmanzadeh, M., Ebrahimnezhad, Y., Shahryar, H. A., Beheshti, R. 2012. The effects of in ovo injection of glucose and magnesium in broiler breeder eggs on hatching traits, performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters of broiler chickens. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, vol. 76, no. 4, p. 277-281.
Shafey, T. M., Mc Donald, M. W., Pym, R. A. 1990. Effects of dietary calcium, available phosphorus and Vitamin D on growth rate, food utilization, plasma and bone constituents and calcium and phosphorus retention of commercial broiler strains. British Poultry Science, vol. 31, no. 3, p. 587-602. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669008417290 PMid:2245353
Singh, A., Walk, C. L., Ghosh, T. K., Bedford, M. R., Haldar, S. 2013. Effect of a novel microbial phytase on production performance and tibia mineral concentration in broiler chickens given low-calcium diets. British Poultry Science, vol. 54, no. 2, p. 206-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2013.775403
Song, Y., Ridker, P. M., Manson, J. E., Cook, N. R., Bruing, J. E., Liu, S. 2005. Magnesium intake, C-reactive protein, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women. Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 1438-1444. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.28.6.1438 PMid:15920065
Swiatkiewicz, S., Koreleski, J., Arczewska-Wloek, A. 2011. Effect of inulin and oligofructose on performance and bone characteristics of broiler chickens fed on diets with different concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. British Poultry Science, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 483-491. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2011.602665
Štenclová, H., Karásek, F., Šťastník, O., Zeman, L., Mrkvicová, E., Pavlata, L. 2016. The effect of reduced zinc levels on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Potravinarstvo, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 272-275. https://doi.org/10.5219/580
Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M. T., Mazur, M., Telser, J. 2007. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 44-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001
Van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E., Van de Linde, I. B., Paton, N. D., Verstegen, M. W. A, Hendriks, W. H. 2013. Effect of different magnesium sources on digesta and excreta moisture content and production performance in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, vol. 92, no. 2, p. 382-391. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02404
Yang, Y., Gao, M., Nie, W., Yuan, J., Zhang, B., Wang, Z., Wu, Z. 2012. Dietary magnesium sulfate supplementation protects heat stress-induced oxidative damage by restoring the activities of antioxidative enzymes in broilers. Biological Trace Elementary Research, vol. 146, no. 1, p. 53-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-9210-y
Zelenka J., Heger J., Zeman L. 2007. Recommended nutrient content in poultry diets and nutritive value of feeds for poultry (in Czech). Brno : MZLU. 77 p. ISBN 978-80-7375-091-6.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).