Inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of raw and roasted Sesamum indicum L. seeds on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and Alzheimer's disease (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase)
Keywords:Sesamum indicum seeds, Î±-amylase, Î±-glucosidase, anticholinesterases, antioxidant activity, Alzheimerâ€™s disease
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are nutritional food, but researches have limited knowledge about the antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticholinesterase activities of the seed. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity, enzyme inhibitory potential (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property of aqueous extracts of raw and roasted sesame seeds. Antioxidant activities were analyzed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging property, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6- sulphonic acid (ABTS) scavenging ability, iron chelating ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Anti-Alzheimer's potential was determined using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in the roasted S. indicum sample with the values of 19.81mg/100g and 17.19 mg/100g respectively. The raw S. indicum sample showed higher antioxidant activity in DPPH, and iron chelation assays; while roasted S. indicum sample showed higher in the reducing power and ABTS scavenging activity. However, anticholinesterase activity was higher in the roasted S. indicum sample than in the raw S. indicum sample. The extracts inhibited α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner (20 - 100 µg.mL-1). The raw sample (16.55 ±0.89%) had higher inhibitory α-amylase activity compared to the roasted sample (15.78 ±0.48%) at 100 µg.mL-1. Inhibition of α-glucosidase was higher in the roasted sample at 100 µg.mL-1 (19.40 ±0.26%) compared to the raw sample at the same concentration (3.65 ±0.52%). These findings suggest that S. indicum L. is not only nutritious but also showed potential pharmacological properties.
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