Mycobiota of Slovak wine grapes with emphasis on aspergillus and penicillium species in the south Slovak wine region
Keywords:wine grapes, mycobiota, Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., mycotoxin
The Southern Slovak wine growing region is warmest part of Slovakia and is suitable for cultivating the grapes for production of wines at high quality. From the eight vineyards were collected 8 samples of wine grapes (white 7, blue 1) during harvesting 2011, 2012 and 2013. The aim of this work was to gain more knowledge about mycobiota on grapes originating from Slovakia, to identify Aspergillus and Penicillium species according to their morphopogy and evaluate the presence of secondary metabolites (also including intracellular and extracellular mycotoxins) produced in in vitro conditions by thin layer chromatography method from fresh grape berries. Fifty wine grapes per bunch (approximately 7 - 8 berries per plate) that showed no symptoms were randomly selected on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar medium. The plates were then incubated aerobically at 25 ±1 °C for 5 to 7 days in the dark. Of these samples were identified 17 genera. One hundred percent of samples were colonies by the genus Penicillium and 75% by the genus Aspergillus. During the survey, 135 isolates belonging to 9 Penicillium species (P. aurantiogriseum, P. canescens, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. decumbens, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. chrysogenum and P. purpurogenum) and 26 isolates belonging to 3 Aspergillus species (A. clavatus, A. flavus and A. section Nigri) were isolated and identified from exogenous contamination. The main occurring penicillium species of the samples were P. expansum (37.5% Fr), followed P. citrinum, P. chrysogenum and P. crustosum (25% Fr). The main occurring aspergillus species of the samples were A. section Nigri (62.5%). Eight potentially toxigenic species were tested for their toxigenic ability. It was confirmed the production of various mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, citrinin, patulin, cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C. Out of 34 strains, 56% produced at least one mycotoxin.
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