Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market
Keywords:corrosion, can, fruit, tin, spectrometry
The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1). The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.
Blunden, S., Wallace, T. 2003. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 41, no. 12, p. 1651-1662. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00217-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00217-5
Boutakhrit, K., Crisci, M., Bolle, F., VanLoco, J. 2011. Comparison of four analytical techniques based on atomic spectrometry for the determination of the total tin in canned foodstuffs. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, vol. 28, no. 2, p. 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2010.544679 PMid:21246429 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2010.544679
Che, Y., Han, Z., Luo, B., Xia, D.,Shi, J., Gao, Z., Wang, J. 2012. Corrosion Mechanism Differences of Tinplate in Aerated and Deaerated Citric Acid Solution. International. Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 7, p.9997-10007.
Coles, R., Kirwan, M. 2011. Food and beverage packaging technology. 2nd ed. New Jersey, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. 344 p. ISBN-13: 978-1405189101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444392180
Comission Regulation 629/2008/EC amending Regulation 1881/2006/EC setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities L 173/6.
Council Directive 1881/2006/EC setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 364/5.
Council Directive 98/83/EC, 1998, on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 330/32.
EFSA, 2005. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Tin [online] s.a. [cit. 2017-01-08] Available at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2005.254
Jorhem, L., Slorach, S. 1987. Lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in foods in welded cans. Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 309-316. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652038709373640 PMid:3653455 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02652038709373640
Knápek, J., Herman, V., Buchtová, R., Vošmerová, D. 2009. Determination of tin in canned foods by atomic absorption spectrometry. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 21, special no., p. S407-S409. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/1068-CJFS
Mannhaim, Ch., Passy, N., Brody, A.L. 1983. Internal corrosion and shelf life of food cans and methods of evaluation. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 371-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398209527354 PMid:6759048 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398209527354
Mino, Y. 2006. Determination of tin in canned foods by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Journal of Health Science, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 67-72. https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.52.67 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.52.67
Rafique, U., Iqbal, S., Faiz, S., Hashmi, A. 2009. Analysis of variation in concentration of essential and non essential elements in canned and fresh food. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 186-203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2008.00241.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2008.00241.x
Robertson, G. L. 2005. Food packaging: Principles and practice. 3rd ed. Boca Raton, USA : CRC Press. 733 p. ISBN-13: 978-1439862414.
Roncevic, S., Benutic, A., Nemet, I., Gabelica, B. 2012. Tin determination in canned fruits and vegetables by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 2012, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/376381 PMid:22550488 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/376381
Trandafir, I., Nour, V., Ionica, M. E. 2012. Determination of tin in canned foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 749-754.
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.