Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of paprika and pepper spices
Keywords:paprika, pepper, polyphenol, antioxidant activity, DPPH
Paprika spices (Capsicium annuum) and black pepper spices (Piper nigrum) are very popular seasonings for culinary and industrial utilization due to the change of sensory quality (taste, aroma, color) of foods and meals with their addition; their health promoting properties; and also, relevant antioxidant activity. Polyphenols are often responsible for the antioxidant capacity of plant products therefore in our study the content of polyphenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (TAA) were assessed in two common culinary spices - paprika spices (12, ground powder spices) and pepper spices (20, unground and ground, black, green, white and colored spices) of Czech, Austrian, and Slovak producers. These parameters were determined using spectrometric method, for total polyphenols method with Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent; the antioxidant activity (TAA) of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of spices was measured by DPPH method with IC50 evaluation. For paprika the total polyphenol content ranged from 14.67 to 28.78 mg GAE.g-1. However, there is only weak connection between the pungency of the spices and the polyphenolic amount, the hotter samples of paprika spices have slightly higher values of TP than sweet types. Also, more pungent paprika products showed a higher potency in scavenging of DPPH free radical than sweeter ones; and ethanolic extracts had slightly higher TAA values (8.73 to 16.17 mg AAE.g-1) than aqueous spice extracts (4.45 to 16.24 mg AAE.g-1). Phenolic amount for pepper spices was assessed in the range of 12.03 to 22.88 mg GAE.g-1. Generally, paprika spices contained more polyphenols than pepper spices. The values of TAA of pepper spices were in the range from 7.07 to 15.81 mg AAE.g-1 for aqueous extracts and from 8.25 to 15.93 mg AAE.g-1 for ethanolic extracts respectively. The highest TAA values were observed for white ground pepper and unground black pepper spices. Unground black pepper samples had higher TAA than ground black pepper. The extent of antioxidant activity of paprika and pepper spices was quite similar. The total phenolics contents in spices were correlated to antioxidant activity only slightly.
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