Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of paprika and pepper spices
Keywords:paprika, pepper, polyphenol, antioxidant activity, DPPH
Paprika spices (Capsicium annuum) and black pepper spices (Piper nigrum) are very popular seasonings for culinary and industrial utilization due to the change of sensory quality (taste, aroma, color) of foods and meals with their addition; their health promoting properties; and also, relevant antioxidant activity. Polyphenols are often responsible for the antioxidant capacity of plant products therefore in our study the content of polyphenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (TAA) were assessed in two common culinary spices - paprika spices (12, ground powder spices) and pepper spices (20, unground and ground, black, green, white and colored spices) of Czech, Austrian, and Slovak producers. These parameters were determined using spectrometric method, for total polyphenols method with Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent; the antioxidant activity (TAA) of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of spices was measured by DPPH method with IC50 evaluation. For paprika the total polyphenol content ranged from 14.67 to 28.78 mg GAE.g-1. However, there is only weak connection between the pungency of the spices and the polyphenolic amount, the hotter samples of paprika spices have slightly higher values of TP than sweet types. Also, more pungent paprika products showed a higher potency in scavenging of DPPH free radical than sweeter ones; and ethanolic extracts had slightly higher TAA values (8.73 to 16.17 mg AAE.g-1) than aqueous spice extracts (4.45 to 16.24 mg AAE.g-1). Phenolic amount for pepper spices was assessed in the range of 12.03 to 22.88 mg GAE.g-1. Generally, paprika spices contained more polyphenols than pepper spices. The values of TAA of pepper spices were in the range from 7.07 to 15.81 mg AAE.g-1 for aqueous extracts and from 8.25 to 15.93 mg AAE.g-1 for ethanolic extracts respectively. The highest TAA values were observed for white ground pepper and unground black pepper spices. Unground black pepper samples had higher TAA than ground black pepper. The extent of antioxidant activity of paprika and pepper spices was quite similar. The total phenolics contents in spices were correlated to antioxidant activity only slightly.
Agbor, G. A., Vinson, J. A., Obenc, J. E., Ngogang, J. Y. 2006. Comparative analysis of the in vitro antioxidant activity of white and black pepper. Nutrition Research, vol. 26, no. 12, p. 659-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2006.09.019
Ahmad, N., Fazal, H., Abbasi, B. H., Farooq, S., Ali, M., Khan, M. A. 2012. Biological role of Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper): A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 3, p. S1945-S1953. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60524-3
Blainski, A., Lopes, G. C., Palazzo de Mello, J. C. 2013. Application and Analysis of the Folin Ciocalteu Method for the Determination of the Total Phenolic Content from Limonium Brasiliense L. Molecules, vol. 18, no. 6, p. 6852-6865. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18066852 PMid:23752469
Butt, M. S., Pasha, I., Sultan, M. T., Randhawa, M. A., Saeed, F., Ahmed, W. 2013. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 9, p. 875-886. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.571799 PMid:23768180
Bystrická, J., Musilová, J., Tomáš, J., Kavalcová, P. Lenková, M., Tóthová, K. 2015. Varietal dependence of chemoprotective substances in fresh and frozen spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L.). Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 468-473. https://doi.org/10.5219/519
Chatterjee, S., Niaz, Z., Gautam, S., Adhikari, S., Variyar, P. S., Sharma, A. 2007. Antioxidant activity of some phenolic constituents from green pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and fresh nutmeg mace (Myristica fragrans). Food Chemistry, vol. 101, no. 2, p. 515-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.02.008
Condorí M., Echazú, R. Saravia, L. 2001. Solar drying of sweet pepper and garlic using the tunnel greenhouse drier. Renewable Energy, vol. 22, p. 447-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(00)00098-7
Cwiková, O., Gregor, T., Šottníková, V., Mašková, H. 2010. Antimicrobial Activity of Spices. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, special no., p. 381-386. Available at: http://www.potravinarstvo.com/dokumenty/mc_februar_2010/pdf/4/Cwikova.pdf
Daood, H. G., Palotás, G., Palotás, G., Somogyi, G., Péka, Z., Helyes, L. 2014. Carotenoid and antioxidant content of ground paprika from indoor-cultivated traditional varieties and new hybrids of spice red peppers. Food Research International, vol. 65, Part B, p. 231-237.
Daood, H. G. 2009. Analytical and technological aspects of bioactive compounds in spice red pepper. Acta Alimentaria, vol. 38, suppl. No. 1, p. 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1556/AAlim.38.Suppl.6
Daood, H. G., Kapitány, J., Biacs, P., Albrecht, K. 2006. Drying temperature, endogenous antioxidants and capsaicinoids affect carotenoid stability in paprika (red pepper spice). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 86, no. 14, p. 2450-2457. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2639
Gnayfeed, M. H., Daood, H. G., Biacs, P. A., Alcaraz, C. F. 2001. Content of bioactive compounds in pungent spice red pepper (paprika) as affected by ripening and genotype. Journal of the Science and Food Agricalture, vol. 81, no. 15, p. 1580-1585. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.982
Gülçin, İ. 2005. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 7, p. 491-499. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480500450248 PMid:16503560
Habauzit, V., Morand, C. 2012. Evidence for a protective effect of polyphenols-containing foods on cardiovascular health: an update for clinicians. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 87-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/2040622311430006 PMid:23251771
Kim, H. G., Bae, J. H., Jastrzebski, Z., Cherkas, A., Heo, B. G., Gorinstein, S., Ku, Y. G. 2016. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 2, p. 129-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-016-0550-9 PMid:27184000
Kim, J. S., Ahn, J., Lee, S. J., Moon, B., Ha, T. Y., Kim, S. 2011. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of fruits and leaves of paprika (Capsicum Annuum L., var. special) cultivated in Korea. Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 2, p. C193-198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01891.x PMid:21535734
Kim, J. S., An, C. G., Park, J. S., Lim, Y. P., Kim, S. 2016. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods. Food Chemistry, vol. 201, p. 64-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.041 PMid:26868549
Koncsek, A., Kruppai, L., Helyes, L., Bori, Z., Daood, H. G. 2016. Storage Stability of Carotenoids in Paprika from Conventional, Organic and Frost-Damaged Spice Red Peppers as Influenced by Illumination and Antioxidant Supplementation. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 453-462. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12623
Marín, A., Ferreres, F., Tomás-Barberán, F. A., Gil, M. I. 2004. Characterization and quantitation of antioxidant constituents of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 12, p. 3861-3869. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0497915 PMid:15186108
Márkus, F., Daood, H. G., Kapitány, J., Biacs, P . A. 1999. Change in the carotenoid and antioxidant vitamin content of spice red pepper (paprika) as a function of ripening and some technological factors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 1, p. 100-107. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980485z PMid:10563856
Materska, M., Perucka, I. 2005. Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 5, p. 1750-1756. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf035331k PMid:15740069
Nahak, G., Sahu, R. K. 2011. Phytochemical Evaluation and Antioxidant activity of Piper cubeba and Piper nigrum. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 1, no. 8, p. 153-157.
Paterson, J. R., Srivastava, R., Baxter, G. J., Graham, A. B., Lawrence, J. R. 2006. Salicylic acid content of spices and its implications. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 8, p. 2891-2896. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf058158w PMid:16608205
Perucka, I.; Materska, M. 2003. Antioxidant activity and content of capsaicinoids isolated from paprika fruits. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 15-18.
Ramos, I. N., Brandao, T. R. S., Silva, C. L. M. 2003. Structural Changes During Air Drying of Fruits and Vegetables. Food Science and Technology International, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 201-206. https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013030335522
Shetty, A. A., Magadum, S., Managanvi, K. 2013. Vegetables as Sources of Antioxidants. Journal of Food Nutrition and Disorder, vol. 2, p. 1. https://doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000104
Soysal, Y., Ayhan, Z., Eştürk, O., Arıkan, M. F. 2009. Intermittent microwave-convective drying of red pepper: Dumerying kinetics, physical (colour and texture) and sensory quality. Biosystems Engineering, vol. 103, no. 4, p. 455-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.05.010
Suhaj, M., Rácová, J., Polovka, M., Brezová, V. 2006. Effect of γ-irradiation on antioxidant activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Food Chemistry, vol. 97, no. 4, p. 696-704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.048
Vega-Gálvez, A., Di Scala, K., Rodríguez, K., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Miranda, M., López, J., Perez-Won, M. 2009. Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. var. Hungarian). Food Chemistry, vol. 117, no. 4, p. 647-653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.066
Vijayakumara, R. S., Suryaa, D., Nalinia, N. 2004. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress. Redox Report, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 105-110. https://doi.org/10.1179/135100004225004742 PMid:15231065
Zaki, N., Hakmaoui, A., Ouatmane, A., Hasib, A., Fernández-Trujillo, J. P. 2013. Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Activity of Moroccan Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) at Different Period of Harvesting and Processing. Biology Agriculture and Healthcare, vol. 3, no. 8, p. 1-8.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).