Effect of rosemary in combination with yeast extract on microbiology quality, oxidative stability and color of non-fermented cooked salami “Inovec”


  • Miroslav Kročko Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department for Evaluation and Processing of Animal Products, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Martin Ďurí­k Istermeat, Povodská cesta 13, 929 01 Dunajská Streda
  • Ondřej Bučko Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Animal Husbandry, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Jana Tkáčová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department for Evaluation and Processing of Animal Products, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Margita Čanigová Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department for Evaluation and Processing of Animal Products, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra
  • Viera Ducková Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Department for Evaluation and Processing of Animal Products, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra




rosemary, salami, oxidative stability, color, antimicrobials


The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant effect of dried rosemary (1 g/kg) in combination with yeast extract 1 g/kg (1st experimental group) and 2 g/kg (2nd experimental group) in compare to control sample (without rosemary extract and treated with E316 and E621) in non-fermented heat-treated product Inovec salami. Inovec salami is a product produced all over the Slovakia. The similar product can be found in Polish (Polish salami) or in the Czech Republic (Vysocina salami). The samples were vacuum packaged and were kept at 4 °C for 30 days. Determination of psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), count of Enterobacteriaceae family (ETB), yeast and moulds, Lactobacillus spp. bacteria count (LAB) was done by cultivation methods. Oxidative stability was determined by TBARS value. Color spaces L*, a*, b* of Inovec salami was determined by CM 2600D spectrophotometer (Konica Minolta, Germany). It was found non-significant (p >0.05) color loss (decrease in redness) over time, and the treatments had a non-significant impact (p >0.05) on redness of the salami in compare to control sample. TBARS values of the rosemary treated cooked salami with different amount of yeasts extracts were significantly lower compare to control sample at the end of the shelf life. Also, lower value of TBARS was determined in salami with rosemary in combination with higher amount of yeast extract. The lowest count of PBC was determined in the second experimental group after 15 days. The rosemary extract in combination of yeast extract treatments were not able to influence the growth of the yeasts and moulds. It was found that rosemary extract in combination with yeast extract in the salami of the second experimental group after 15 days of storage significantly (p <0.05) decrease count of Lactobacillus bacteria.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Belantine, C. W., Crandall, P. G., O'Bryan, C. A., Duong, D. Q., Pohlman, F. W. 2006. The pre- and post-grinding application of rosemary and its effects on lipid oxidation and colour during storage of ground beef. Meat Science, vol. 73, p. 413-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.12.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.12.003

Cofrades, S., Serrano, A., Ayo, J., Carballo, J., Jimenez-Colmenero, F. 2008. Characteristics of meat batters with added native and preheated defatted walnut. Food Chemistry, vol. 107, no. 4, p. 1506-1514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.006

Estévez, M., S. Venranas, R. Ramírez, R. Cava. 2005. Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatile pattern of porcine frankfurters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 21, p. 8317-8324. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051025q DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051025q

Fernandez-Lopez, J., Sevilla, L., Sayas-Barbera, E., Navarro, C., Marin, F., Perez-Alvarez, J. A. 2003. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts in cooked pork meat. Journal of Food Science, vol. 68, no. 2, p. 660-664. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb05727.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb05727.x

Fernandez-Lopez J., Zhi, N., Aleson-Carbonell L., Perez-Alvarez J. A., Kuri V. 2005. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of natural extracts: application in beef meatballs. Meat Science, vol. 69, p. 371-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.08.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.08.004

Formanek, Z., Lynch, A., Galvin, K., Farkas, J., Kerry, J. P. 2003. Combined effects of irradiation and the use of natural antioxidants on the shelf-life stability of overwrapped minced beef. Meat Science, vol. 63, no. 4, p. 433-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(02)00063-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00063-3

Grau, A., Guardiola, F., Boatella, M., Barroeta, A., Codony, R. 2000. Measurement of 2-thiobarbituric acid values in dark chicken meat through derivative spectrophotometry: influence of various parameters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 4, p. 1155-1159. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990518q DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990518q

Hygreeva, D., Pandey, M. C., Radhakrishna, K. 2014. Potential applications of plant based derivatives as fat replacers, antioxidants and antimicrobials in fresh and processed meat products. Meat Science, vol. 98. p. 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.04.006 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.04.006

Ibrahim, F. A. A., Al-Ebady, N. 2014. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Some Plant Extracts and their Applicability in Extending the Shelf Life of Stored Tomato Fruits. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, vol. 5, p. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000340 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000340

Jiang, Y., Wu, N., Fu, Y. J., Wang, W., Luo, M., Zhao, C. J., et al. 2011. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Rosemary. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2011.03.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2011.03.011

Johnson, J. J. 2011. Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Cancer Letters, vol. 305, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2011.02.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2011.02.005

Karre, L., Lopez, K., Getty, K. J. K. 2013. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Meat Science, vol. 94, no. 2, p. 220-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.007

Karakaya, M., Bayrak, E., Ulusoy, K. 2011. Use of natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. Journal of Food Science and Engineering, vol. 1, p. 1-10.

Lahucky, R., Nuernberg, K., Kovac, L., Bucko, O., Nuernberg, G. 2010. Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts - in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork. Meat Science, vol. 85, p. 779-784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.004

Lawrence, T. E., Dikeman, M. E., Hunt, M. C., Kastner, C. L., Johnson, D. E. 2004. Effects of enhancing beef longissimus with phosphate plus salt, or calcium lactate plus non-phosphate water binders plus rosemary extract.

Meat Science, vol. 67, no. 1, p. 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.09.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.09.015

Martínez, L., Cilla, I., Beltrán, J. A., Roncalés, P. 2006. Antioxidant effect of rosemary, borage, green tea, pu-erh tea and ascorbic acid on fresh pork sausages packaged in a modified atmosphere: influence of the presence of sodium chloride. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 86, no. 9, p. 1298-1307. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2492 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2492

Martínez, L., Cilla, I., Beltrán, J. A., Roncalés, P. 2007. Effect of illumination on the display life of fresh pork sausages packaged inmodified atmosphere. Influence of the addition of rosemary, ascorbic acid and black pepper.

Meat Science, vol. 75, no. 3, p. 443-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.07.021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.07.021

Mathenjwa, S. A., Hugo, C. J., Bothma, C., Hugo, A. 2012. Effect of alternative preservatives on the microbial quality, lipid stability and sensory evaluation of boerewors. Meat Science, vol. 91, no. 2, p. 165-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.01.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.01.014

McCarthy, T. L., Kerry, J. P., Kerry, J. F., Lynch, P. B., Buckley, D. J. 2001a. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural food/plant extracts as compared with synthetic antioxidants and vitamin E in raw and cooked pork patties. Meat Science, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 45-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(00)00129-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00129-7

McCarthy, T. L., Kerry, J. P., Kerry, J. F., Lynch, P. B., Buckley, D. J. 2001b. Assessment of the antioxidant potential of natural food and plant extracts in fresh and previously frozen pork patties. Meat Science, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 177-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(00)00090-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00090-5

Mirshekar, R., Dastar, B., Shabanpour, B. 2009. Effect of rosemary, Echinacea, green tea extracts and ascorbic acid on broiler meat quality. Pakistan Journal of Biological

Sciences, vol. 12, no. 15, p. 1069-1074. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2009.1069.1074 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2009.1069.1074

Ngo, S. N., Williams, D. B., Head, R. J. 2011. Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 51, p. 946-954. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.490883 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.490883

Offord, E. 2004. Rosemary. In Packer, I., Ong, C. N., Halliwell, B. Herbal and traditional medicine: Molecular aspects of health p. 457-470. New York : CRC Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203025901.ch20

Omidbeygi, M., Barzegar, M., Hamidi, Z., Naghdibadi, H. 2007. Antifungal activity of thyme, summer savory and clove essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in liquid medium and tomato paste. Food Control, vol. 18, p. 1518-1523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.12.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.12.003

Rižnar, K., Čelan, Š., Knez, Ž., Škerget, M., Bauman, D., Glaser, R. 2006. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of rosemary extract in chicken frankfurters. Journal of Food Science, vol. 71, p. 425-429. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00130.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00130.x

Rodríguez Vaquero, M. J., Tomassini Serravalle, L. R., Manca de Nadra, M. C., Strasser de Saad, A. M. 2010. Antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds from argentinean herbs infusions.

Food Control, vol. 21, p. 779-785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.10.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.10.017

Sebranek, J. G., Sewalt, V. J. H., Robbins, K. L., Houser, T. A. 2005. Comparison of a natural rosemary extract and BHA/BHT for relative antioxidant effectiveness in pork sausage. Meat Science, vol. 69, p. 289-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.07.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.07.010

Serrano, A., Librelotto, J., Cofrades, S., Sánchez-Muniz, F. J., Jiménez-Colmenero, F. 2007. Composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks containing walnuts as affected by cooking method.

Meat Science, vol. 77, no. 3, p. 304-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.03.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.03.017

Seydim, A. C., Guzel-Seydim, Z. B., Action, J. C., Dawson, P. L. 2006. Effect of rosemary extract and sodium lactate on quality of vacuum-packaged ground ostrich meat. Journal of Food Science, vol. 71, no. 1, p. 571-576. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.tb12409.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.tb12409.x

Šošo, V., Skrinjar, M., Blagojev, N., Cabarkapa, I., Lukic. D. 2013. Antifungal activity of Oleoresins used in meat industry on some toxigenic Aspergillus spp. Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke, issue 124, p. 185-194. https://doi.org/10.2298/zmspn1324185s DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/ZMSPN1324185S

Yesil Celiktas O., Hames Kocabas E. E., Bedir E., Vardar Sukan F., Ozek T., Baser K. H. C. 2007. Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations. Food Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 2, p. 553-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.011

Yu, L., Scanlin, L., Wilson, J., Schmidt, G. 2002. Rosemary extracts as inhibitors of lipid oxidation and color change in cooked turkey products during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Science, vol 67, no. 2, p. 582-585. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10642.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10642.x

Zhang, H., Kong, B., Xiong, Y. L., Sun, X. 2009. Antimicrobial activities of spice extracts against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in modified atmosphere packaged fresh pork and vacuum packaged ham slices stored at 4 °C. Meat Science, vol. 81, no. 4, p. 686-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.11.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.11.011




How to Cite

Kročko, M. ., Ďurí­k, M. ., Bučko, O. ., Tkáčová, J. ., Čanigová, M. ., & Ducková, V. . (2015). Effect of rosemary in combination with yeast extract on microbiology quality, oxidative stability and color of non-fermented cooked salami “Inovec”. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 9(1), 160–165. https://doi.org/10.5219/464

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>