The estimated possibilities of process monitoring in milk production by the simple thermodynamic sensors
Keywords:Thermodynamic sensor, fermentation process, yeast
The characterization and monitoring of thermal processes in thermodynamic systems can be performed using the thermodynamic sensors (TDS). The basic idea of thermodynamic sensor is possible to use in many various applications (eq. monitoring of frictional heat, thermal radiation, pollution of cleaning fluid, etc.). One of application areas, where the thermodynamic sensor can find the new area for a using, is a production of milk products - cheese, yogurt, kefir, etc. This paper describes the estimated possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of the use of thermodynamic sensors in diary productions and simple experiments for characterization and monitoring of basic operations in milk production process by thermodynamic sensors. The milk products are often realized by fermenting or renneting process. Final stages of fermentation and renneting processes are often determined on the base of sensory evaluation, pH measurement or by analytical method. The exact time of the fermentation process completion is dependent on various parameters and is often the company know-how. The fast, clean and simple non-analytical non-contact method for monitoring and for the determination of process final stages does not exist in this time. Tests of fermentation process, renneting process and yoghurt process by thermodynamic sensors were characterized and measured in this work. Measurement of activity yeasts was tested in first series of experiments. In second series of experiments, measurement of processes in milk production was tested. First results of simple experiments show that the thermodynamic sensors might be used for determination of time behaviour of these processes. Therefore, the milk products (cheese, yogurt, kefir, etc.) is opened as a one of new application areas, where the thermodynamic sensor can be used.
Arora, S., Jood, S., Khetarpaul, N. 2010. Effect of germination and probiotic fermentation on nutrient composition of barley based food mixtures. Food Chemistry, vol. 119, no. 2, p. 779-784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.07.035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.07.035
Attfield, P. V., Kletsas, S., Veal, D. A., Van Rooijen, R., Bell, P. J. L. 2000. Use of flow cytometry to monitor cell damage and predict fermentation activity of dried yeasts. Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 89, no. 2, p. 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01100.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01100.x
Charalampopoulos, D., Wang, R., Pandiella, S. S., Webb, C. 2002. Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 79, no. 1-2, p. 131-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00187-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00187-3
Courtin, P., Rul, F. 2004. Interactions between microorganisms in a simple ecosystem: yogurt bacteria as a study model. Le Lait, vol. 84, no. 1-2, p. 125-134. https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2003031 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2003031
Deere, D., Shen, J., Vesey, G., Bell, P., Bissinger, P., Veal, D. 1998. Flow cytometry and cell sorting for yeast viability assessment and selection. Yeast, vol. 14, p. 147-160. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(19980130)14:2<147::AID-YEA207>3.0.CO;2-L DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(19980130)14:2<147::AID-YEA207>3.0.CO;2-L
Drozdz, I., Makarewicz, M., Sroka, P., Satora, P., Jankowski, P. 2015. Comparison of the yeast microbiota of different varieties of cool-climate grapes by PCR-RAPD. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 293-298. https://doi.org/10.5219/484 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/484
Fung, D. Y. C. 1994. Rapid methods and automation in food microbiology: a review. Food Reviews International. vol. 10, p. 357-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129409541006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129409541006
Halasz, A., Lasztity, R. 1990. Use of Yeast Biomass in Food Production. CRC Press. 352 p. ISBN 9780849358661.
Haugland, R. 1996. Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals. Oregon, USA : Molecular Probes Inc.
Industrial Property Office of the Czech Republic. Technique of referential temperature and temperature difference measurement, asymetric temperature sensor and asymetric referential unit to technique application. Patent owner: Reznicek, Z. Czech Republic. Patent no. CZ-297066. 2006-07-19.
Jones, R. P. 1987a. Measures of cell death and deactivation and their meaning: part I. Process Biochemistry, vol. 22, p. 118-128.
Jones, R. P. 1987b. Measures of cell death and deactivation and their meaning: part II. Process Biochemistry, vol. 23, 130-134.
Kocková, M., Valík, Ľ. 2011. Potential of cereals and pseudocereals for lactic acid fermentations. Potravinarstvo, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 27-40. https://dx.doi.org/10.5219/127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/127
Lloyd, D., Hayes, A. J. 1995. Vigour, vitality and viability of microorganisms. FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 133, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07852.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07852.x
Neal, D. 2004. Introduction to Population Biology. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press. 394 p. ISBN 978-0521532235
Semjan, Š. 1994. Mliekárstvo (Dairy technology). Nitra, Slovak Republic : SPU, 204 p. ISBN 80-7137-157-2.
Reznicek, Z., Tvarozek, Y., Reznicek, M., Szendiuch, I. 2005. Temperature balanced process media energy activity monitoring, International Conference EDS-IMAPS CS 2005 proceeding. Brno, Czech Republic. p. 94-100. ISBN 80-214-2990-9.
Reznicek, Z., Tvarozek, Y., Reznicek, M., Szendiuch, I. 2006. Hybrid Constant Temperature Regulator. International Conference EuroSimE It 2006 proceeding, Como, Italy, p. 502-505. ISBN 1-4244-0275-1.
Reznicek, Z. S., Szendiuch, I., Reznicek, M., Reznicek Z. Jr. 2008. Thick Film Double Thermodynamic Sensor System. In 2nd Electronics System integration Technology Conference proceedings. Greenwich, UK, 1-4 September 2008. p. 1301 - 1304. ISBN 978-1-4244-2813-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/estc.2008.4684542 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ESTC.2008.4684542
Reznicek, M. 2014. Thermodynamic sensors based on the principle of balance equilibrium: dissertation theses. Brno, Czech Republic : FEKT VUT Brno, 93 p.
Rivera-Espinoza, Y., Gallardo-Navaro, Y. 2010. Non-dairy probiotic products. Food Microbiology, vol. 27, no. 1, p. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.06.008 PMid:19913684 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.06.008
Walker, G. M. 1998. Yeast Physiology and Biotechnology. Wiley. 362 p. ISBN 9780471964469.
Walstra, P., Wouters, J. T., Geurts, T. J. 2006. Dairy science and technology. London, UK : CRC press, Taylor & Francis Group. 808 p. ISBN 978-0-8247-2763-5.
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.