The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level
Keywords:glycaemia, glycaemic index, age, gender, time after consumption
AbstractBlood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI) foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years). All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85), white bread bun (GI 70), boiled potatoes (GI 64), rye bread (GI 62), potato dumplings (GI 52) and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41). Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001) and gender (p <0.0001). The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001). An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001). One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035). The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574) and sex (p = 0.8256) of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food (p <0.0001). Significant interactions were also found in case of sex*age (p = 0.0002), age*GI (p <0.0001) and age*sex*GI (p <0.0001). Medium correlation was found between the GI values of food and the rise of blood glucose levels after 1 h (r = 0.6468). After the consumption of high-GI foods the values of glycaemia did not returned to their fasting levels even after 2 hours. There was still significant difference (p = 0.0032), but the values after 2 h were also statistically different from those after 1 hour (p <0.0001). The response to a particular type of consumed food depended on age (p = 0.0018) and especially the GI of foods.
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