Utilisation of Quinoa for development of fermented beverages


  • Jolana Karovičová Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325559 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5253-5531
  • Zlatica Kohajdová Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325656 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8188-6947
  • Michaela Lauková Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325562 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3941-967X
  • Lucia Minarovičová Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325562 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3214-4490
  • Mária Greifová Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325683 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6111-2837
  • Jarmila Hojerová Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325564 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9963-9503
  • Gabriel Greif Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421259325557 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2348-4362




quinoa, fermentation, lactic acid bacteria, beverages, sensory acceptance


Lactic acid fermentation of pseudocereals represents a useful tool for the preparation of value-added beverages with beneficial properties to consumers. The aim of this work was the development of a novel quinoa-based beverage fermented with commercially available probiotic culture including Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The results concluded that fermentation of quinoa beverages significantly increased proteins and total phenolic content and antioxidation activity in the final products (by 36.84%, 26.67%, and 14.74%, respectively). In general, the overall acceptability of unfermented quinoa beverages was low (less than 46%), but the fermentation process slightly increased their acceptability (by 9.43%). A significant improvement of acceptability was observed, when the raspberry syrup was supplemented into the fermented beverages (by 90.98% compared to the no supplemented samples). Viability of fermenting microorganisms, pH, total acidity, and organic acid content were determined during the storage of beverages for 21 days at 5 °C. It was found that prepared quinoa beverages had a good probiotic potential (>6 CFU.mL-1 of lactic acid bacteria cocci). Furthermore, this study also showed that the quinoa represents a suitable raw material for formulation novel gluten and dairy-free fermented beverages with increased content of nutritionally important compounds.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


AACC. 2000. Approved Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th ed. The Association St. Paul, MN. moisture (method 44-19.01), ash (method 08-01.01), protein (method 46-13.01), crude fat (method 30-25.01).

Ahmed, J., Thomas, L., Arfat, Y. A. 2019. Functional, rheological, microstructural and antioxidant properties of quinoa flour in dispersions as influenced by particle size. Food Research International, vol. 116, p. 302-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.08.039 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.08.039

AOAC. 2003. Total dietary fibre in foods. Enzymatic-gravimetric method. (method 985.29)

Gordillo–Bastidas, E, Díaz–Rizzolo, D. A., Roura, E., Massanés, T, Gomis, R. 2016. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), from nutritional value to potential health benefits: An integrative review. Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, vol. 6, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.100049

Bhargava, A., Shukla, S., Ohri, D. 2006. Chenopodium quinoa - an Indian perspective. Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 73-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2005.04.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2005.04.002

Bianchi, F., Rossi, E. A., Gomes, R. G., Sivieri, K. 2014. Potentially symbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy. Food Science and Technology International, vol. 21, no. 6, p. 403-415.https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013214540672 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013214540672

Bustos, A. Y., Gerez, C. L., Mohtar, L. G. M., Zanini, V. I. P., Nazareno, M. A., Taranto, M. P., Iturranga, L. B. 2017. Lactic acid fermentation improved textural behaviour, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) dough. Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 381-389. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.

Dallagnol, A. M., Pescuma, M., De Valdez, G. F., Rollán, G. 2013. Fermentation of quinoa and wheat slurries by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778: proteolytic activity. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 97, no. 7, p. 3129-3140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4520-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4520-3

Gallina, D. A., Barbosa, P. P. M., Ormenese, R. C. S. C., Garcia, A. O. 2019. Development and characterisation of probiotic fermented smoothie beverage. Revista Ciencia Agronimica, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 378-386. https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20190045 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20190045

Georgieva, A., Iliev, I., Haertle, T., Chobert, J. M., Ivanovad, I., Danova, S. 2009. Technological properties of candidate probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains. International Dairy Journal, vol. 19, no. 11, p. 696-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.06.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.06.006

Ghosh, K., Ray, M., Adak, A., Dey, P., Halder, S. K., Das, A., Jana, A., Parua, S., Das Mohapatra, P. K., Pati, B. R., Mondal, K. C. 2015. Microbial, saccharifying and antioxidant properties of an Indian rice based fermented beverage. Food Chemistry, vol. 168, p. 196-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.042 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.042

Graham, J. O., Agbenorhevi, J. K., Kpodo, F. M. N. 2017. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of okra seeds from different genotypes. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 90-94. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajfn-5-3-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12691/ajfn-5-3-2

Hole, A.S., Rud, I., Grimmer, S., Sigl, S., Narvhus, J, Sahlstrøm S. 2012. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 63, p. 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf300410h DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf300410h

Cho, Y. H., Shin, I. S., Hong, S. S., Kim, Ch. H. 2015. Production of functional high – protein beverages fermented with lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean traditional fermented food. Korean Journal of Food Science of Animal Resources, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 189-196. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosta.2015.35.2.189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2015.35.2.189

Jorgensen, H., Sholly, D., Pedersen, A. O., Canibe, N., Knudsen, K. E. B. 2010. Fermentation of cereals-influence on digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs. Livestic Science, vol. 134, no. 1-3, p. 56-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.096 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.096

Kaur, I., Tanwar, B. 2016. Quinoa beverages: formulation, processing and potential health benefits. Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutritiron and Metabolic Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 215-225. https://doi.org/10.1515/rjdnmd-2016-0026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/rjdnmd-2016-0026

Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J. 2008. Lactic acid fermented vegetable juices (Mliečne fermentované zeleninvé šťavy). Potravinarstvo, vol. 2, č. 1, p. 50-59. (in Slovak)

Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J. 2004. Optimalisation of method of fermentation of cabbage juice. Czech Journal of Food Science, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 39-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/3405-CJFS

Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J., Greifová, M. 2006. Lactic acid fermentation of some vegetable juices. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 115-119.

Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J., Magala, M., Kuchtová, V. 2014. Effect of apple pomace powder addition on farinographic properties of wheat dough and biscuits quality. Chemical Papers, vol. 68, no. 8, p. 1059-1065. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-014-0567-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-014-0567-1

Koziol, M. 1991. Afrosimetric estimation of threshold saponin concentration for bitterness in quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 54, no. 2, p. 211-219. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740540206 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740540206

Kurman, J. A., Rasic, J. L. 1991. The health potential of products containing bifidobacteria. In Robinson, R. K. Therapeutic properties of fermented milks. London : Elsevier, p. 117-157. ISBN 1851665525.

Lorusso, A., Coda, R., Montemurro, M., Rizzello, C. G. 2018. Use of selected lactic acid bacteria and quinoa flour for manufacturing novel yogurt-like beverages. Foods, vol. 5, no. 7, p. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods 7040051 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040051

Magala, M., Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová J. 2013. Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures. Acta Scientarium Pololonorum. Technologia Alimentaria, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 295-302.

Magala, M., Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J., Greifová, M., Hojerová, J. 2015. Application of lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented beverages based on rice flour. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 33, no. 5, p. 458-463. https://doi.org/10.17221/74/2015-CJFS DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/74/2015-CJFS

Marko, A., Rakická, M., Mikušová, L., Valík, Ľ., Šturdík, E. 2014. Lactic acid fermentation of cereal substrates in nutritional perspective. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 80-92.

Ndife, J., Linus-Chibueseh, A., Bseocha, C. V. 2019. Development and evaluation of a non-dairy probiotic beverage from brown rice (Oryzae sativa). Journal of Food and Processing Technology, vol. 10, no. 8, p. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.35248/2157-7110.19.10.806 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35248/2157-7110.19.10.806

Nionelli, L., Coda, R., Curiel, J. A., Poutanen, K., Gobbetti, M., Rizzello, C. G. 2014. Manufacture and characterization of a yogurt-like beverage made with oat flakes fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 185, p. 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.05.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.05.004

Nisar, M., More, D. R., Zubair, S., Hashmi, S. I. 2017. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of quinoa seed: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, vol. 6, no. 5, p. 2067-2069.

Park, J. H., Lee, Y. J., Kim, Y. H., Yoon, K. S. 2017. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds cultivated in Korea. Preventive Nutrition Food Science, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 195-202. https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2017.22.3.195

Pereira, F. A. L., Rodrigues, S. 2012. Fermentation of cashew apple juice. In Hui, Y. H., Evranuz, E. O. Handbook of plant-based fermented food and beverage technology. Boca Raton : CRC Press, p. 237-248. ISBN 9781439849040. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/b12055-17

Pineli, L. L. O. Botelho, R. B., Zandonadi, R. P., Solorzano, J. L., Oliveira, G. T., Reis, C. E. G., Teixeira, D. S. 2015. Low glycemic index and increased protein content in a novel quinoa milk. LWT – Food Science and Technology, vol. 63, p. 1261-1267. https://doi.org/10.1016/jlwt.2015.03.094 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.094

Pytel, R., Cwiková, O., Ondrušíková, S., Nedomová, Š., Kumbár, V. 2018. Effect of additives to microbiological quality of yogurts. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 186-194. https://doi.org/10.5219/886 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/886

Rathore, S., Salmerón, I., Pandiella, S. S. 2012. Production of potentially probiotic beverages using single and mixed cereal substrates fermented with lactic acid bacteria cul¬tures. Food Microbiology, vol. 30, p. 239-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2011.09.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2011.09.001

Rollán, G. C., Gerez, C. L., LeBlanc, J. G. 2019. Lactic fermentation as a strategy to improve the nutritional and functional values of pseudocereals. Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 6 p. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019,00098 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00098

Samona, A., Robinson, R. K. 1994. Effect of yogurt cultures on the survival of bifidobacteria in fermented milks. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, vol. 47, no. 2, p. 58-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.1994.tb01273.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.1994.tb01273.x

Simwaka, J. E., Chamba, M. V. M., Huiming, Z., Masamba, K. G., Luo, Y. 2017. Effect of fermentation on physicochemical and antinutritional factors of complementary foods from millet, sorghum, pumpkin and amaranth. International Journal Food Research Journal, vol. 24, no. 5, p. 1869-1879.

STN ISO 15214, 2002. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Colony-count technique at 30 °C. Slovak Technical Norms. (Mikrobiológia potravín a krmív. Horizontálna metóda na stanovenie počtu mezofilných kyslomliečnych baktérií. Metóda počítania kolónií kultivovaných pri 30 °C.) (in Slovak)

Sudha, M. L., Baskaran, V., Leelavathi, K. 2007. Apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols and its effect on the rheological characteristics and cake making. Food Chemistry, vol. 104, p. 686-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.016

Tang, Y. O., Tsao, R. 2017. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review. 2017. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 61, no. 7. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201600767 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201600767

Tangyu, M., Muller, J., Bolten, Ch. J., Wittmamm, Ch. 2019. Fermentation of plant-based milk alternatives for improved flavour and nutritional value. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 103, p. 9263-9275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-10175-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-10175-9

Ujiroghene, O. J., Liu, L., Zhang, S., Lu, J., Zhang, C., Pang, X., Lv, J. 2019. Potent α–amylase inhibitory activity of sprouted quinoa-based yoghurt beverages fermented with elected anti–diabetic strains of lactic acid bacteria. RSC Advances, vol. 9, p. 9486-9493. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA10063B DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA10063B

Urquizo, F. E. L., Torrez, S. M. G., Tolonen, T., Jaakkola, M., Pena-Nuhr, M. G., Wright, A., Repo-Caromed-Rhonen, H., Plumed-Ferrer, C. 2017. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverages. Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 5, p. 602-608. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.436 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.436

Väkeväinen, K., L., Ludena-Urquizo, F., Korkala, E., Lapveteläinen, A., Peränieni, S., Wright, A., Plumed-Ferrer, C. P. 2020. Potential of quinoa in the development of fermented spoonable vegan products. LWT – Food Science and Technology, vol. 120, p. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108912 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108912

Zannini, E., Jeske, S., Lynch, K. M., Arendt, E. K. 2018. Development of novel quinoa-based yoghurt fermented with dextran producer Weissella MG1. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 268, p. 19-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodmicro.2018.01.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.01.001



How to Cite

Karovičová, J., Kohajdová, Z., Lauková, M., Minarovičová, L., Greifová, M., Hojerová, J., & Greif, G. (2020). Utilisation of Quinoa for development of fermented beverages . Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 465–472. https://doi.org/10.5219/1323

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>