Quantification of genetically modified maize MON 810 in processed foods
Keywords:processed food, MON 810 maize, PCR quantification
Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L.) represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union) countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure) on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C), elevated pressure (0.1 MPa) and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C) and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa). The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.
BERDAL, K. H., HOLST-JENSEN, A. 2001. Roundup Ready soybean event-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay and estimation of the practical detection and quantification limits in GMO analyses. In Eur. Food Research Technol., vol. 213, p. 432-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170100403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170100403
BERGEROVÁ, E., GODÁLOVÁ, Z., SIEKEL, P. 2011. Combined effect of temperature, pressure and low pH on the DNA amplification of plant derived foods. In CJFS, vol. 29, p. 337-345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/217/2010-CJFS
BERGEROVÁ, E., HRNČÍROVÁ, Z., STANKOVSKÁ, M., LOPAŠOVSKÁ, M., SIEKEL, P. 2010. Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Amplification and Quantification of Transgenic and Non-transgenic Soybean and Maize DNA. In Food Analytical Methods, vol. 3, p. 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-009-9115-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-009-9115-y
DEBODE, F., JANSSEN, E., BERBEN, G. 2007. Physical degradation of genomic DNA of soybean flours does not impair relative quantification of its transgenic content. In Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 226, p. 273-280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0536-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0536-1
DIRECTIVE 2003/89/EC of the European Parlament and of the Council of 10 November 2003 amending Directive 2000/13/EC as regards indication of the ingredients present in foodstuffs. 2003. In Official Journal of the European Union, L308, p. 15.
ENGEL, K. H., MOREANO, F., EHLERT, A., BUSCH, U. 2006. Quantification of DNA from genetically modified organisms in composite and processed foods. In Trends in Food Sci. Technol., vol. 17, p. 490-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2006.04.008
GRYSON, N., MESSENS, K., DEWETTINCK, K. 2007. Influence of cocoa components on the PCR detection of soy lecithin DNA. In Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 226, p. 247-254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0533-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0533-4
GRYSON, N., MESSENS, K., DEWETTINCK, K. 2008. PCR amplification of soy ingredients in bread. In Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 227, p. 345-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0727-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0727-4
GRYSON, N., RONSSE, F., MESSENS, K., DE LOOSE, M., VERLEYEN, T., DEWETTINCK, K. 2002. Detection of DNA during the refining of soybean oil. In JAOCS, vol. 79, p. 171-174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0453-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0453-2
HIRD, H., CHISHOLM, J., SANCHEZ, A., HERNANDEZ, C., GOODIER, R., SCHNEEDE, K., BOLTZ, C., POOPING, B. 2006. Effect of heat and pressure processing on DNA fragmentation and implications for the detection of meat using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. In Food Addit. Contam., vol. 23, p. 645-650. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030600603041 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030600603041
HRNČÍROVÁ, Z., BERGEROVÁ, E., SIEKEL, P. 2008. Effects of technological treatment on DNA degradation in sected food matrices of plant origin. In JFNR,vol. 47, p. 23-28.
HURST, C. D., KNIGHT, A., BRUCE, I. J. 1999. PCR Detection of Genetically Modified Soya and Maize in Foodstuffs. In Mol. Breeding, vol. 5, p. 579-586. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009654623025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009654623025
KNOWLES, B H. 1994. Mechanism of action of Bacillus thurigiensis insecticidal delta endotoxins. In Adv. Insect Physiol., vol. 24, p. 275-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2806(08)60085-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2806(08)60085-5
MAZZARA, M., GRAZIOLI, E., SAVINI, C., VAN DEN EEDE, G. 2009. Report on the Verification of the Performance of a MON810 Event-specific Method on Maize Line MON810 Using Real-time PCR. In Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
MEYER, R., CHARDONNENS, F., HÜBNER, P., LÜTHY, J. 1996. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the Quality and Safety Assurance of Food: Detection of Soya in Processed Meat Products. In Zeit Lebensm Unters Forsch, vol. 203, p. 339-344.https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01231072 PMiD:9123971 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01231072
MOREANO, F., BUSCH, U., ENGEL, K. H. 2005. Distortion of genetically modified organisms quantification in processed foods: Influence of particle size composition and heat-induced DNA degradation. In J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 53, p. 9971-9979. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051894f PMiD:16366682 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051894f
QUERCI, M. JERMINI, M., VAN DEN EEDE G. 2004. The analysis of food samples for the presence of genetically modified organisms, User manual. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 114, ISBN-92-79-02242-3.
REGULATION (EC) No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC. 2003.In Official Journal of the European Union, L 268/24.
RODRÍGUES-LAZÁRO, D., LOMBARD, B., SMITH, H., RZEZUTKA, A., D´., AGOSTINO, M., HELMUTH, R., SCHROETER, A., MALORNY, B., MIKO, A., GUERRA, B., DAVIDSON, J., KOBILINSKY, A., HERNÁNDEZ, M., BERTHEAU, Y., COOK, N. 2007. Trends in analytical methodology in food safety and quality: monitoring microorganisms and genetically modified organisms. In Trends Food Sci. Tech., vol. 8, p. 306-319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.01.009
TRIFA, Y., ZHANG, D. 2004. DNA content in embryo and endosperm of maize kernel Zea mays L: Impact on GMO quantification. In J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 52, p. 1044-1048. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034574+, PMiD:14995095 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034574+
YOSHIMURA, T., KURIBARA, H., MATSUOKA, T., KODAMA, T., IIDA, M., WATANABE, T., AKIYAMA, H. MAITANI, T., FURUI, S., HINO, A. 2005. Applicability of the quantification of genetically modified organisms to foods processed from maize and soy. In J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 53, p. 2052-2059. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048327x PMiD:15769135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048327x
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.