The concentrations of phthalic acid esters in a water bath at sous-vide heat treatment
Keywords:water, dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, plasticizer, contaminant
Esters of phthalic acid are common contaminants of the environment because of their large application in plastics. Phthalic acid esters are used as plasticizers in plastics, and they are also used in plastic intended for contact with food. In our research, we investigated the influence of heating on the migration of phthalic acid esters into the water used as a water bath. The water bath was used to heat the vacuum-wrapped meat, this heating is called the sous-vide method. The plastic thermostable bags containing phthalates were used on the meat packaging. Two esters of phthalic acid dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have been determined. Three packaged meat samples were heated in a water bath for one hour either at 50 °C or at 60 °C. The water was analyzed always before the heating and after the heating. Average DEHP concentrations in the water dropped after heating at 50 °C in two cases and average DBP concentrations rose in one case and declined in one case. Average DBP concentrations in water declined after heating at 60 °C, while average DEHP concentrations after heating at 60 °C in water increased. The concentrations of phthalic acid esters in the water ranged from 15.2311 μg.L-1 to 34.5645 μg.L-1 for DEHP and from 0.0433 μg.L-1 to 2.6529 μg.L-1 for DBP. The heating of vacuum-packed food in plastic phthalate bags in a water bath does not pose a great risk of contamination of water with phthalic acid esters.
ATSDR. 2001. Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate. Available at: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp135.pdf
ATSDR. 2002. Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Available at: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp9.pdf
Brimer, L. 2011. Contaminants from processing machinery and food contact materials. In Brimer, L. Chemical food safety. Cambridge, MA : CABI, p. 191-195. ISBN 978-1-84593-676-1. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845936761.0191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845936761.0191
Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. OJ L 12, 15.1.2011, p. 1-89.
Fan, J. C., Long, W. U., Wang, X. F., Huang, X. H., Jin, Q., Wang, S. T. 2012. Determination of the migration of 20 phthalate esters in fatty food packaged with different materials by solid-phase extraction and UHPLC–MS/MS. Analytical Methods, vol. 4, p. 4168-4175. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ay25916h DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ay25916h
Gao, D. W., Wen, Z. D. 2016. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes. Science of The Total Environment, vol. 541, p. 986-1001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.148 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.148
Gavala, H. N., Alatriste-Mondragon, F., Iranpour, R., Ahring, B. K. 2003. Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge. Chemosphere, vol. 52, no. 4, p. 673-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00126-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00126-7
Hahladakis, J. N., Velis, C. A., Weber, R., Iacovidou, E., Purnell, P. 2018. An overview of chemical additives present in plastics: Migration, release, fate and environmental impact during their use disposal and recycling. Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 344, p. 179-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.10.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.10.014
Chen, M. L., Chen, J. S., Tang, C. L., I-Fang Mao, I. F. 2008. The internal exposure of Taiwanese to phthalate: An evidence of intensive use of plastic materials. Environment International, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 79-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.07.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.07.004
Jandlová, M., Jarošová, A., Kameník, J. 2017. Esters of phthalic acid in meat samples prepared by sous-vide technology. In Hygiene and Food Technology XLVII. Lenfeld's and Hökl's days: Proceedings of lectures and posters. Brno, CZ: University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, p. 156-159. ISBN 978-80-7305-793-0.
Jarošová, A., Gajdůšková, V., Razsyk, J., Sevela, K. 1999. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate in the tissues of pigs and broiler chicks after their oral administration. Veterinary medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 61-70.
Kameník, J. 2016. Sous vide, low & slow or LTLT? Modern methods of heat treatment of the meat guarantee its fragility. Can they also guarantee health-conscious consumers? Meat: a professional journal for meat processing, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 31-37.
Liang, D. W., Zhang, T., Fang H. H. P., He, J. 2008. Phthalates biodegradation in the environment. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 80, no. 2, p. 183-198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1548-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1548-5
Liu, Y., Chen, Z., Shen, J. 2013. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, vol 2013, 8 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/419349 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/419349
Morita, M., Nakamura, H., Mimura, S. 1974. Phthalic acid esters in water. Water Research, vol. 8, no. 10, p. 781-788. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(74)90023-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(74)90023-2
Mousa, A., Basheer, C., Al-Arfaj, A. R. 2013. Determination of phthalate esters in bottled water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with GC-MS. Journal of Separation Science, vol. 36, no. 12, p. 2003-2009. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201300163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201300163
Prokůpková, G., Holadová, K., Poustka, J., Hajšlová, J. 2002. Development of a solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of phthalic acid esters in water. Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 457, no. 2, p. 211-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00020-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00020-X
Rastkari, N., Jeddi, M. Z., Yunesian, M., Ahmadkhaniha, R. 2017. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on Release of Phthalate Ester into Packed Acidic Juice. Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 55, no. 4, p. 562-569. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5128 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.55.04.17.5128
Rhodehamel, E. J. 1992. FDA's Concerns with Sous Vide Processing. Food Technology, vol. 46, no. 12, p. 73-76.
Robertson, G. L. 2013. Food Packaging Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 686 p. ISBN 978-1-4398-6242-1.
Rose, R. J., Priston, M. J., Rigby-Jones, A. E., Sneyd, J. R. 2012. The effect of temperature on di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leaching from PVC infusion sets exposed to lipid emulsions. Anaesthesia, vol. 67, no. 5, p. 514-520. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.2011.07006.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.2011.07006.x
Shailaja, S., Ramakrishna, M., Mohan, S. V., Sarma, P. N. 2007. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in bioaugmented bioslurry phase reactor. Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 8, p. 1561-1566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.06.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.06.009
Schellekens, M. 1996. New research issues in sous-vide cooking. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 7, no. 8, p. 256-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(96)10027-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(96)10027-3
Siracusa, V., Rocculi, P., Romani, S., Rosa, M. D. 2008. Biodegradable polymers for food packaging: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 19, no. 12, p. 634-643. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.003
Tan, W., Zhang, Y., He, X., Xi, B., Gao, R., Mao, X., Huang, C., Zhang, H., Li, D., Liang, Q., Cui, D., Alshawabkeh, A. N. 2016. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems. Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, 31987 p. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31987 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31987
Velíšek, J., Hajšlová, J. 2009. Food chemistry II. 3rd ed. Tábor, CZ : OSSIS. 623 p. ISBN 978-80-86659-16-9.
Wang, J., Ping, L., Hanchang, S., Yi, Q. 1997. Biodegradation of phthalic acid ester in soil by indigenous and introduced microorganisms. Chemosphere, vol. 35, no. 8, p. 1747-1754. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00255-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00255-5
Wang, X., Lou, X., Zhang, N., Ding, G., Chen, Z., Xu, P., Wu, L., Cai, J., Han, J., Qiu, X. 2015. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 10, p. 2205-2212. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3065 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3065
Yuwatini, E., Hata, N., Taguchi, S. 2006. Behavior of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate discharged from domestic waste water into aquatic environment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 191-196. https://doi.org/10.1039/B509767C DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/B509767C
Zhou, Q. H., Wu, Z. B., Cheng, S. P., He, F., Fu, G. P. 2005. Enzymatic activities in constructed wetlands and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) biodegradation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 37, no. 8, p. 1454-1459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.01.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.01.003
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.