Total phosphorus, phytate phosphorus contents and the correlation of phytates with amylose in selected edible beans in Sri Lanka
Keywords:phytates, phosphorus, amylose, phytate phosphorus, legumes
Phytate a major anti nutritional factors in legumes and it accounts for larger portion of the total phosphorus, while limiting the bioavailablity of certain divalent cations to the human body. Legumes of eleven varieties cultivated in Sri Lanka, Mung bean (MI5, MI6), Cowpea (Waruni, MICP1, Bombay, Dhawala, ANKCP1), Soybean (MISB1, Pb1) and Horse gram (ANKBlack, ANKBrown) were analyzed for phosphorus content and phytate content. Total phosphorus content was quantified by dry ashing followed by spectrophotometrical measurement of the blue colour intensity of acid soluble phosphate with sodium molybdate in the presence of ascorbic acid while phytate phosphorus using anion exchange chromatographic technique followed by spectrometrical measurement of the digested organic phosphorus and amylose content by Simple Iodine-Colourimetric method. Where the least value for phosphorus was observed 275.04 ±1.44 mg.100g-1 in ANKBlack (Horse gram) and the highest in MISB1 (Soyabean) with 654.94 ±0.05 mg.100g-1. The phytate phosphorus content (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus) was highest in Dhawala (Cowpea). The phytate phosphorus (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus) was highest in Dhawala with 67.42% and least in Bombay (Cowpea) with 24.87%. The amylose content of the legumes was least in Pb1 with 8.71 ±0.13 mg.100mg-1 and the highest in MI6 22.58 ±0.71 mg.100mg-1. The correlation between phyate and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05) and positive (r = 0.62). Similarly the correlation coefficient for phytate phosphorus and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05) and positive (r = 0.63). Amylose content of legumes was significantly correlated negatively (p <0.05) with the total phytates content (r = -0.82).
AOAC International, 2012. Method 986.11 Phytate in foods. AOAC international, Suite 500, Maryland, USA.
AOAC International, 2012. Method 995.11 Phosphorus (total) in foods. AOAC international, Suite 500, Maryland, USA.
Azeke, M. A, Egielewa, S. J., Eigbogbo, M. U., Ihimire, I. G. 2010. Effect of germination on the phytase activity, phytate and total phosphorus contents of rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Journal of food science and technology, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 724-729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0186-y PMid:23572811
Cossa, J., Jeroch, H., Kerstin Oloffs, Kluge, H., Drauschke, W., Ackermann, R. 1999. Total Phosphorus and Phytate Phosphorus Content in Grain Maize (Zea Mays). Journal of Agriculture in Tropics and Subtropics, vol. 100, no. 2, p.181-188.
Dahiya, S. 2016. Role of phytate and phytases in human nutrition. International Journal of Food Science and Nutriton, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 39-42.
Dayakar Rao, B., Malleshi, N. G., Annor, G. A., Patil, J. V. 2016. Millets Value Chain for Nutritional Security: A Replicable Success Model from India. 1st ed. UK : CABI. 254 p. ISBN 978-1780648309.
García-Estepa, R. M., Guerra-Hernández, E., García-Villanova, B. 1999. Phytic acid content in milled cereal products and breads. Food Research International, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 217-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(99)00092-7
Greiner, R., Konietzny, U, Jany, K. D. 2006. Phytate - an undesirable constituent of plant - based foods. Journal fur Ernahrungsmedizin, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 18-28.
Gunathilake, K. G. T., Wansapala, M. A. J., Herath, H. M. T. 2016. Comparison of nutritional and functional properties of mung bean (Vigna radiate) and cowpea (Vignaun guiculata) protein isolates processed by isoelectric precipitation. International Journal of Innovative Research in Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, p.139-148.
Chavan, U. D., Shinde, B. G., Kadam, S. S., Amarowicz, R. 2010. Isolation and Characterization of Starch from Horse Gram. African Journal Food Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 3, p.64-67.
Chitra, U. 1994. Effect of Storage and Processing on Phytic Acid Levels in Legumes and Its Interference With the Utilisation of Protein and Iron : dissertation theses. Rajendranagar : Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University. 240 p.
Kaur, M., Sandhu, K. S., Singh, N., Lim, S. 2011. Amylose content, molecular structure, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of starches from different mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars. Starch - Stärke, vol. 63, no. 11, p. 709-716. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201100053
Lolas, G. M., Markakis, P. 1975. Phytic acid and other phosphorus compounds in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 13-15. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60197a016
Marimuthu, M., Krishnamoorthi, K. 2013. Nutrients and functional properties of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum), an underutilized south Indian food legume. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5, no. 5, p.390-394.
Ologhobo, D. A. 1989. Improving the nutritive value of soybean (Glycine mx (L.) Merr.) through processing: biochemical and protein quality studies. Tropical Agriculture, vol. 66, p. 290-296.
Ologhobo, D. A., Fetuga, B. L. 1982. Polyphenols, phytic acid and other phosphorus compounds of lima bean (Phseolus lunntis). Nutrition Reports International, vol. 26, p.605-611.
Raboy, V. 2001. Progress in Breeding Low Phytate Crops. In Plant Breeding: A New Tool for Fighting Micronutrient Malnutrition. National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, Aberdeen : National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility, p. 503-505.
Raboy, V., Dickinson, D. B., and Below, F. E. 1984. Variation in seed total phosphorus, phytic acid, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and protein among lines of Glycine max and G. soja. Crop Science, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 431-434. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1984.0011183X002400030001x
Ravindran, V., Ravindran, G., Sivalogan, S. 1994. Total and phytate phosphorus contents of various foods and feedstuffs of plant origin. Food chemistry, vol. 50, no. 2, p. 133-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90109-0
Reddy, N. R., Sathe, S. K. 2002. Food phytates. Boca Ranton, Florida : CRC press. 280 p. ISBN 9781566768672.
Sandhu, K. S., Lim, S. T. 2008. Digestibility of legume starches as influenced by their physical and structural properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 71, no. 2, p.245-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.05.036
Stevenson, D. G., Doorenbos, R. K., Jane, J., Inglet, G. E. 2006. Structures and functional properties of starch from seeds of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties. Starch, vol. 58, no. 10, p. 509-519. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200600534
Vitorello, V. A., Coelho, C. M. M., Santos, J. C. P., Tsai, S. M. 2002. Seed phytate content and phosphorus uptake and distribution in dry bean genotypes. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202002000100007
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).