Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup


  • Judit Süli University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice
  • Ingrid Hamarová University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice
  • Anna Sobeková University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice




non-enzymatic browning reaction, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, caramelisation, Maillard reaction


The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins). Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6%) with glycine (concentration 0.7%) or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%), heat-treated 60 - 100 °C for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min, was studied. The formation of AGE products and melanoidins was determined on the basis of absorption at 294 nm (AGE-products) and 420 nm (melanoidins), respectively. The results pointed out notable difference in the AGE-products and also melanoidins formation for a variety of sugars. The reactivity of sucrose was low even at 100 °C/60 min. Fructose and glucose originated a significantly increasing of the non-enzymatic browning products formation. The reactivity of fructose was in the caramelisation and also in Maillard reactions the highest in any combination of composition. Lysine is the most reactive amino acid which takes part in Maillard reactions even if it is bound to protein. The non-enzymatic browning reactions result in the formation of non-digestible cross-linked proteins. Lysine is also the limiting essential amino acid of most cereals. Due to the lysine properties, reduction in protein quality is the most important nutritional effect of Maillard reactions in food. The sucrose replacement by fructose-glucose syrup in bakery products leads to more extensive non-enzymatic browning reactions, i.e. caramelisation and also Maillard reactions, while changes are in the Maillard reaction more pronounced.


Download data is not yet available.


Akram, M., Hamid, A. 2013. Mini review on fructose metabolism. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2012.11.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2012.11.002

Brands, M. C., Alink, G. M., van Boekel, M. A., Jongen, W. M. 2000. Mutagenicity of heated sugar-casein systems: effect of the Maillard reaction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 6, p. 2271-2275. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9907586 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9907586

Bray, G. A., Nielsen, S. J., Popkin, B. M. 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 4, p. 537-543. PMid:15051594 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.4.537

Bray, G. A. 2013. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people. Advances in Nutrition, vol. 4, p. 220-225. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002816 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002816

Delgado-Andrade, C., Seiquer, I., Haro, A., Castellano, R., Pilar Navarro, M. 2010. Development of the Maillard reaction in foods cooked by different techniques. Intake of Maillard-derived compounds. Food Chemistry, vol. 122, no. 1, p. 145-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.031 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.031

Dills, W. L. Jr. 1993. Protein fructosylation: fructose and Maillard reaction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 5 Suppl., p. 779S-787S. PMid:8213610 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/58.5.779S

Gaby, A. R. 2005. Adverse effects of dietary fructose. Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 294-306. PMid:16366738

Hu, F. B., Malik, V. S. 2010. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence. Physiology & Behaviour, vol. 100, no. 1, p. 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.036

Jiang, Z., Rai, D. K., O´Connor, P. M., Brodkorb, A. 2013. Heat-induced Maillard reaction of the tripeptide IPP and ribose: Structural characterization and implication on bioactivity. Food Research International, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.028

Johnson, R., Padmaja, G., Moorthy, S. N. 2009. Comparative production of glucose and high fructose syrup from cassava and sweet potato roots by direct conversion techniques. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 616-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2009.04.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2009.04.001

Lo, Ch. Y., Li, S. L., Wang, Y., Tan, D., Pan, M. H., Sang, S., Ho, Ch. T. 2008. Reactive dicarbonyl compounds and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural in carbonated beverages containing high fructose corn syrup. Food Chemistry, vol. 107, no. 3, p. 1099-1105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.028

Markowicz Bastos, D., Monaro, É., Siguemoto, É., Séfora M. 2012. Maillard reaction products in processed food: pros and cons. In Valdez, B. Food Industrial Processes - Methods and Equipment. Rijeka, Croatia : InTech., p. 281-300. ISBN 978-953-307-905-9. https://doi.org/10.5772/31925 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/31925

Moeller, S. M., Fryhofer, S. A., Osbahr, A. J., Robinowitz, C. B. 2009. The effects of high fructose syrup. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 619-626. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2009.10719794 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2009.10719794

Nagai, R., Jinno, M., Ichihashi, M., Koyama, H., Yamamoto, Y., Yonei, Y. 2012. Advanced glycation end products and their receptors as risk factors for aging. Anti-Aging Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 108-113.

Nagai, R., Shirakawa, J., Fujiwara, Y., Ohno, R., Moroishi, N., Sakata, N., Nagai, M. 2014. Detection of AGEs as markers for carbohydrate metabolism and protein denaturation. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.13-112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.13-112

Naranjo, G. B., Malec, L. S., Vigo, M. S. 1998. Reducing sugars effect onavailable lysine loss of casein by moderate heat treatment. Food Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 3, p. 309-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00176-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00176-3

Nordic Sugar. The functional properties of sugar - on a technical level [online] s.a. [cit. 2016-12-01]. Available at: http://www.nordicsugar.com/fileadmin/Nordic_Sugar/Brochures_factsheet_policies_news/Download_center/Functional_properties_of_sugar_on_a_technical_level/Functional_prop_on_tech_level_uk.pdf.

Purlis, E. 2010. Browning development in bakery products - A review. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 99, no. 3, p. 239-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.03.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.03.008

Rippe, J. M., Angelopoulos, T. J. 2013. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know? Advances in Nutrition, vol. 4, p. 236-245. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002824 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002824

Rystov, L., Chadwyk, R., Krock, K., Wang, T. 2011. Simultaneous determination of Maillard reaction impurities in memantine tablets using HPLC with charged aerosol detector. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 56, no. 5, p. 887-894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2011.07.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2011.07.010

Sarwar, G. 1985. Differences between digestibilities of protein and first lifting amino acid in some plant products. In Lásztity, R. et al. Amino acid composition and biological value of cereal proteins. Dordrecht, Holland : D. Reidel Publishing Company, p. 295-304. e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-5307-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5307-9_13

Sitárová, T. 2011. Food Consumption in the Slovak Republic (in Slovak). Bratislava : Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. ISBN: 978-80-8121-376-2.

Sumaya-Martinez, M. T., Thomas, S., Linard, B., Binet, A., Guerard, F. 2005. Effect of Maillard reaction conditions on browning and antiradical activity of sugar-tuna stomach hydrolysate model system. Food Research International, vol. 38, no. 8-9, p. 1045-1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2011.07.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2005.03.015

Tappy, L., Lê, K. A. 2010. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiological Reviews, vol. 90, no. 1, p. 23-46. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00019.2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00019.2009

Velíšek, J. 2014. The Chemistry of Food. Chichester, UK : John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-38381-0.

Vlčáková, M., Vieriková, M. 2010. Determination of acrylamide in food by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potravinarstvo, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 63-68. https://doi.org/10.5219/61 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/61

Yamada, H., Miyata, S., Igaki, N., Yatabe, H., Miyauchi, Y., Ohara, T., Sakai, M., Shoda, H., Oimomi, M., Kasuga, M. 1994. Increase in 3-Deoxyglucosone Levels in Diabetic Rat Plasma. Specific in vivo determination of intermediate in advanced Maillard reaction. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 32, p. 20275-20280. PMid:8051120 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(17)31987-7

Yeboah, F. K., Alli, I., Yaylayan, V. A. 1999. Reactivities of D-glucose and D-fructose during glycation of bovine serum albumin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 8, p. 3164-3172. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981289v DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981289v

Yu, X., Zhao, M., Hu, J., Zeng, S., Bai, X. 2012. Correspondence analysis of antioxidant activity and UV-Vis absorbance of Maillard reaction products as related to reactants. LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.11.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.11.010




How to Cite

Süli, J. ., Hamarová, I. ., & Sobeková, A. . (2017). Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 11(1), 425–430. https://doi.org/10.5219/772