Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles
Keywords:ecological arable system, integrated arable system, wheat noodle colour
Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized) during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants), farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.
Asentorfer, R. E., Wang, Y., Mares, D. J. 2006. Chemical structure of flavonoid compounds in wheat that contribute to the yellow colour of Asian alkaline noodles. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 43, p. 108-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.09.001
Bednářová, M., Ošťádalová, M., Král, M., Tremlová, B. 2015. Comparison of selected sensory properties of wholemeal breads. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 211-216. https://doi.org/10.5219/454
Dykes, L., Rooney, L. W. 2007. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World, vol. 52, no. 3, p. 105-111. https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-52-3-0105
Fu, B. X. 2008. Asian noodles. History, classification, raw materials and processing. Food Research International, vol. 41, p. 888-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.11.007
Fuerst, E. P., Anderson, J. V., Morris, G. F. 2006. Delineating the role of polyphenol oxidase in the darkening of alkaline wheat noodles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, p. 2378-2384. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0526386
Holmboe-Ottesen, G. 2010. Increased levels of bioactive compounds in organically grown food plants. Possible health effects? In Aksel Bernhoft (ed.) Bioactive compounds in plants - benefits and risks for man and animals. Proceedings from a symposium held at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Oslo, 13-14 November 2008. Novus Forlag. p. 236-252. ISBN 978-82-7099-583-7.
Humphries, J. M., Graham, R. D., Mares D. J. 2004. Application of reflectance colour measurement to the estimation of carotene and lutein content in wheat and triticale. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 40, p. 151-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2004.07.005
Chang, H. C., Wu, L. C. 2008. Texture and quality properties of Chinese fresh egg noodle formulated with green seaweed (Monostroma nitidum). Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, no. 8, p. 398-404. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00912.x
Kosík, T., Lacko-Bartošová, M., Kobida, Ľ. 2014. Influence of agricultural practices on phenolics and flavonoids of winter wheat. In Inovácie technológií špeciálnych výrobkov biopotravín pre zdravú výživu ľudí. Nitra, p. 145-151, ISBN 978-80-552-1272-2.
Kruger, J. E., Anderson, M. A., Dexter, J. E. 1994. Effect of flour refinement on raw Cantonese noodle color and texture. Cereal Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 2, p. 177-182.
Landi, A. 1995. Durum wheat, semolina and pasta quality characteristics for an Italian food company. In Durum wheat quality in the Mediterranean region. Di Fonzo N. (ed.), Kann F. (ed.), Nachit M. (ed.). Zaragoza: CIHEAM, no. 22, p. 33-42.
Lee, C. H., Gore, P. J., Lee, H. D., Yoo, B. S., Hong, S. H. 1987. Utilization of Australian wheat for Korea style dried noodle making. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 283-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(87)80065-6
Li, W. D., Pickard, M. D., Beta, T. 2007. Effect of thermal processing on antioxidant properties of purple wheat bran. Food Chemistry, vol. 104, no. 3, p. 1080-1086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.024
Liu, L., He, Z., Yan, J., Zhang, Y., Xia, X., Peña, R. J. 2005. Allelic variation at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, presence of the 1B.1R translocation, and their effects on mixographic properties in Chinese bread wheats. Euphytica, vol. 142, no. 3, p. 197-204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-005-1682-4
Liu, R. H. 2004. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 12, p. 3479S-3485S. PMid:15570057
Liu, R. H. 2007. Whole grain phytochemicals and health. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 207-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.06.010
Ma, W., Sutherland, M. W., Kammholza, S., Banks, P., Brennan, P., Bovill, W., Daggard, G. 2007. Wheat flour protein content and water absorption analysis in a doubled haploid population. Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 302-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2006.10.005
Miskelly, D. H. 1984. Flour components affecting paste and noodle colour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 463- 471. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740350417
Owens, G. 2011. Cereals processing technology, CRC Press, 238p., ISBN 978-1-85573-561-3.
Šivel, M., Fišera, M., Klejdus, B., Kráčmar, S., Kubáň, V., Golian, J., Svobodová, B. 2014. Lutein in food supplements available on the markets of the Viszegrad countries. Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 261-266, https://doi.org/10.5219/387
Wang, Ch., Kovacs, M. I. P., Fowler, D. B., Holley, R. 2004. Effects of Protein Content and Composition on White Noodle Making Quality: Color. Cereal Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 6, p. 777-784. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2004.81.6.777
Zhang, Y., Wu, Y., Xiao, Y., He, Z., Zhang, Y., Yan, J., Zhang, Y., Xia, X., Ma, C. 2009. QTL mapping for flour and noodle colour components and yellow pigment content in common wheat. Euphytica, vol. 165, p. 435-444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-008-9744-z
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.