A quality enhancement green strategy for broiler meat by application of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder as litter amendment to affect microbes, ammonia emission, pH and moisture


  • K.G.S.C. Katukurunda K.G.S.C.Katukurunda Research Assistant/ PhD Student, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
  • H. A. A. Y. Buddhika Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya
  • M. K. W. Gamage Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya
  • Prabhashini Dissanayake Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya
  • Dulcy Senaratna Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya




Turmeric powder, Total Plate Count, Mold Count, Nematode Count, NH3


 In multi-cultural Sri Lankan conditions, poultry meat is paramount importance in ensuring food security and improving nutrition. Issues as contact dermatitis and ammonia emission in broiler industry which caused by diminished litter parameters cause reduction of meat quality, profits and environmental conditions. Therefore use of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) (TM) powder as an antiseptic litter amendment at several application levels to enhance litter parameters with microbial demolition was attempted. Three months old broiler litter (2 kg) sample was taken and initial pH and moisture was determined. Turmeric was used to mix at levels of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 8% (w/w). After mixing, 150 g of mixed litter was placed in container for each level of the 4 replicates, incubated for 5h and analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC), Yeast and Mold Count (YMC), total Nematode Count (NC), ammonia emission, pH and moisture. Significant reduction (p <0.05) of total bacteria was seen (20%, 46%, 95% and 96%) when 1%, 3%, 5% and 8% applications of TM. The YMC reduction was also significant (p <0.05) (34%, 41%, 55% and 65%). Total nematode reduction (p <0.05) was 22%, 45%, 62.5% and 70%. A significant (p <0.05) pH reduction with increment of TM also seen (0.1, 2, 3 and 3%). Moisture (%) was increased (p <0.05) (6, 0.78, 19 and 1%). Ammonia emission was significantly decreased (p <0.05) by increased TM (64, 68, 73 and 84%) against control. It was concluded that the bacterial, fungal, nematode counts, pH and Ammonia emission of broiler litter can be significantly reduced with the application of 8% (w/w) of turmeric powder.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Amit-Romach, E., Sklan, D., Uni, Z. 2004. Microflora ecology of the chicken intestine using 16S ribosomal DNA primers. Poultry Science, vol. 83, no. 7, p. 1093-1098. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.7.1093 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.7.1093


Anderson, D. P., Beard, C. W., Hanson, R. P. 1964. The adverse effects of ammonia on chickens including resistance to infection with Newcastle disease virus. Avian Diseases, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 369-379. https://doi.org/10.2307/1587967 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1587967

Apajalahti, J. H. A., Kettunen, A., Graham, H. 2004. Characteristics of the gastrointestinal microbial communities, with special reference to the chicken. World's Poultry Science Journal, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 223-232. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20040017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20040017

Apsimon, H., Kruse, M., Bell, J. N. P. 1987. Ammonia emissions and their role in deposition. Atmospheric Environment, vol. 21, no. 9, p. 1939-1946. https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(87)90154-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(87)90154-5

Barnes, E. M., 1979. The intestinal microflora of poultry and game birds during life and after storage. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 46, no. 3, p. 407-419. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1979.tb00838.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1979.tb00838.x


Brooks, J. P., McLaughlin, M. R., Scheffler, B., Miles, D. M. 2010. Microbial and antibiotic resistant constituents associated with biological aerosols and poultry litter within a commercial poultry house. Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 20, p. 4770-4777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.038 PMid:20655094 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.038

Carlile, F. S. 1984. Ammonia in poultry houses: A literature review, World's Poultry Science Journal, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19840008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19840008

Carr, L. E., Wheaton, F. W., Douglass, L. W. 1990. Empirical models to determine ammonia concentrations from broiler chicken litter. Transaction of the ASAE, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 260-265. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.31325 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.31325

Caveny, D. D., Quarles, C. L., Greathouse, G. A. 1981. Atmospheric ammonia and broiler cockerel performance. Poultry Science, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 513-516. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0600513 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0600513

Department of Animal production and Health. 2014. Annual Report of the Department of Animal production and Health, Sri Lanka, 2014. Livestock statistics [online] s.a. [cit. 2015-11-09] Available at: http://www.daph.gov.lk/web/index.php?lang=en.

Donham, K. J., Rubino, M. J., Thedell, T. D. Kammermeyer, J. 1977. Potential health hazards to agricultural workers in swine confinement buildings. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, p. 383-387. https://doi.org/10.1097/00043764-197706000-00004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00043764-197706000-00004

Engberg, R. M., Hedemann, M. S., Leser, T. D., Jensen, B. B. 2000. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers. Poultry Science, vol. 79, no. 9, p. 1311-1319. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.9.1311 PMid:11020077 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.9.1311

Gaiero, J. R. 2014. Microbiology and Nitrogen Mineralization in Composted Poultry Litter Amended with Biodiesel Wash Water : dissertation thesis. Guelph, Ontario, Canada : The University of Guelph. 58 p.

Gholap, D. B. 2012. Evaluation of Air and Litter Quality with Microbiological Fluctuations in Commercial Broiler Facilities Using a Biological or Chemical Litter Treatment : dissertation thesis. Auburn, Alabama : Auburn University. p. 79-80.

Gong, J., Forster, R. J., Yu, H., Chambers, J. R., Sabour, P. M., Wheatcroft, R., Chen, S. 2002. Diversity and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in the mucosa of chicken caeca and comparison with bacteria in the cecal lumen. FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 208, no. 1, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11051.x PMid:11934485 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11051.x

Gruzauskas, R., Semaskaite, A., Jarule, V., Stupeliene, A.R., Sasyte, V., Angelovicova, M., Hagarova, M., Kliment M. 2011. The impact of phytobiotics origami aetheroleum and probiotics pediococcus acidilactici ma 18/5 m on biochemical blood indices and preceacal availability of calcium and phosphorus in broiler chickens. Potravinárstvo, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 355-358.

Haščík, P., Trembecká, L., Bobko, M., Čuboň, J., Bučko, O., Tkáčová, J. 2015. Evaluation of meat quality after application of different feed additives in diet of broiler chickens. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 174-182. https://doi.org/10.5219/429 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/429

Hossain, M. S., Dey, A. R., Alim, M. A., Begum, N. 2015. In vitro efficacy of medicinal plant material on the inhibition of development of egg of Ascaridia galli. The Journal of Advances in Parasitology, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 5-10. https://doi.org/10.14737/journal.jap/2015/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.14737/journal.jap/2015/

Inouye, S., Abe S., Yamaguchi H., Asakura M. 2003. Comparative study of antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of selected essential oils by gaseous and solution contacts. International Journal of Aromatherapy, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 33-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-4562(03)00057-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-4562(03)00057-2

Inouye, S., Takizawa T. and Yamaguchi H. 2001. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 47, no. 5, p. 565-573. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/47.5.565 PMid:11328766 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/47.5.565

Jingrang, L., Sanchez, S., Hofacre, C., Maurer, J. J., Harmon, B. G., Lee, M. D. 2003. Evaluation of Broiler Litter with Reference to the Microbial Composition as Assessed by Using 16S rRNA and Functional Gene Markers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 69, p. 901-908. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.2.901-908.2003 PMCid:PMC143620

Katukurunda, K. G. S. C., Gamage, M. K. W., Buddhika, H. A. A. Y., Prabhashini, S. D., Senaratna, D. 2015. Comparison of Microbial Aspects, Ammonia Emission Rates and Properties of Broiler and Layer Litters after Application of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Powder. International Journal of Innovative Research in Technology, vol. 2, no. 4, 19-24.

Klimešová, M., Horáček, J., Ondřej, M., Manga, I., Koláčková, I., Nejeschlebová, L., Ponížil, A. 2015. Microbial contamination of spices used in production of meat products. Potravinarstvo, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 154-159. https://doi.org/10.5219/440 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/440

Lan, P. T., Hayashi, H., Sakamoto, M. Benno, Y. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of cecal microbiota in chicken by the use of 16S rDNA clone libraries. Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 371-382. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2002.tb02709.x PMid:12153114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2002.tb02709.x

Lu, J., Idris, U., Harmon, B., Hofacre, C., Maurer, J. J., Lee, M. D. 2003. Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 69, no. 11, p. 6816-6824. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.11.6816-6824.2003 PMid:14602645 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.11.6816-6824.2003

Lu, J., Shanchez, S., Hofacre, C., Maurer, J. J., Harmon, B. G., Lee, M. D. 2003. Evaluation of broiler litter with reference to the microbial composition as assessed by using 16s rRNA and functional gene markers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 69, no. 2, p. 901-908. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.2.901-908.2003 PMid:12571010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.2.901-908.2003

Macklin, K. S., Hess, J. B., Bilgili, S. F., Norton, R. A. 2005. Bacterial levels of pine shavings and sand used as poultry litter. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 14, p. 238-245. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/14.2.238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/14.2.238

Mead, G. C. 1989. Microbes of the avian cecum: Types present and substrates utilized. The Journal of Experimental Zoology Supplement, vol. 3, p. 48-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.1402520508 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.1402520508

Miles, D., Branton, S. L., Lott, B. D. 2004. Atmospheric ammonia is detrimental to the performance of modern commercial broilers. Poultry Science, vol. 83, no. 10, p. 1650-1654. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.10.1650 PMid:15510548 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.10.1650

Moore, P. A. Jr., Daniel, T. C., Edwards, D. R. 1999. Reducing phosphorus runoff and improving poultry production with alum. Poultry Science, vol. 78, no. 5, p. 692-698. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.5.692 PMid:10228965 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.5.692

Nagaraj, M. 2006. Evaluation of nutrition and management factors in the etiology of pododermatitis in broiler chickens : dissertation thesis. Auburn, Alabama : Auburn University. 121 p.

Obire, O., Anyanwu, E. C., Okigbo, R. N. 2008. Saprophytic and crude oil degrading fungi from cow dung and poultry droppings as bioremediating agents, Journal of Agricultural Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 81-89.

Pokharel, B. B. 2010. Ammonia emission from poultry industry, its effect and mitigation mechanism [online] s.a. [cit. 2016-07-12] Available at: http://www.academia.edu/1799968/AMMONIA_EMISSION_FROM_POULTRY_INDUSTRY_ITS_EFFECTS_AND_MITIGATION_MECHANISM.

Pope, M. J. and Cherry, T. E. 2000. An evaluation of the presence of pathogens on broilers raised on Poultry Litter Treatment (PLT) treated litter. Poultry Science, vol. 79, no. 9, p. 1351-1355. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.9.1351 PMid:11020084 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.9.1351

Rahman, M. 2002. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of some plants against gastro intestinal nematodes of goats : dissertation thesis. Mymensingh, Bangladesh : Agricultural University, 121 p.

Rothrock, M. J., Cook, K. L., Warren, J. G., Sistani, K. 2008. The effect of alum addition on microbial communities in poultry litter. Poultry Science, vol. 87, no. 8, p. 1493-1503. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00491 PMid:18648040 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00491

Salanitro, J. P., Blake, I. G., Muirehead, P. A., Maglio, M., Goodman, J. R. 1978. Bacteria isolated from the duodenum, ileum and cecum of young chicks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 782-790. PMid:646359 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.35.4.782-790.1978

Schefferle, H. E. 1965. The microbiology of built up poultry litter. Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 403-411. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1965.tb02170.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1965.tb02170.x

Scott, A. M., McCann, M. A., Waltman, W. D. 1998. Microbiological Survey of Georgia Poultry Litter. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 90-98. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/7.1.90 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/7.1.90

Vadlejch, J., Petrtýl, M., Zaichenko, I., Čadková, Z., Jankovská, I., Langrová, I., Moravec, M. 2011. Which McMaster egg counting technique is the most reliable? Parasitology Research, vol. 109, no. 5, p. 1387-1394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2385-5 PMid:21526406 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2385-5

Witkowska, D., Sowińska, J. 2013. The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses. Poultry Science, vol. 92, no. 11, p. 2834-2843. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03147 PMid:24135585 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03147

Yardimci, M. and Kenar, B. 2008. Effect of stocking density on litter microbial load in broiler chickens. Archiva Zootechnica, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 75-81.

Zhu, X. Y., Zhong T., Pandya, Y., Joerger, R. D. 2002. 16S rRNA based analysis of microbiota from the caecum of broiler chickens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 1, p. 124-137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.68.1.124-137.2002




How to Cite

Katukurunda, K. ., Buddhika, H. A. A. Y. ., Gamage, M. K. W. ., Dissanayake, P. ., & Senaratna, D. . (2016). A quality enhancement green strategy for broiler meat by application of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder as litter amendment to affect microbes, ammonia emission, pH and moisture. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 10(1), 452–457. https://doi.org/10.5219/577