Effect Of Chromium Nicotinate On Oxidative Stability, Chemical Composition And Meat Quality Of Growing-Finishing Pigs
Keywords:chromium nicotinate, meat quality, chemical composition, oxidative stability, pork
The effect of different organic sources of Cr on growth, feed efficiency and carcass value is known but there is a lack of information between chromium nicotinate (CrNic) and pork quality. Therefore, purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of CrNic on chemical composition, quality and oxidative stability of pork meat. In the study, pigs of Large White breed (40 pcs) were used. The pigs were divided into two groups, namely the control and the experimental of 20 pcs with equal number of barrows and gilts. The pigs were fed the same diet which consisted of three feed mixtures applied at the different growth phases, from 30 - 45 kg OS-03, 45 - 70 kg OS-04 and 70 - 100 kg OS-05. The pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. The diet of experimental group was supplemented with 0.75 mg.kg-1 CrNic in the form of chromium-inactivated yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fattening period in pigs lasted from 30 to 100 kg. The chromium supplementation led to a significantly higher content of chromium in longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) of experimental pigs. In addition, the results showed a statistically significant difference (p ≤0.05) in retention of chromium in the LT, monounsaturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content in experimental group compared with control. Moreover, there was highly significant (p £0.05) difference in essential fatty acids, as well as in oxidative stability in 7 days, among the groups. The highly significant differences were also observed among sexes, namely in total water, protein and intramuscular fat contents, colour CIE b* in both times, and oxidative stability. However, physical-technological parameters (pH, drip loss, shear force and meat colour) were not affected when pigs were fed the supplement. On the whole, the positive effect of chromium nicotinate in most of investigated parameters may be beneficial not only for pork industry but also for consumers.
Amoikon, E. K., Fernandez, J. M., Southern, L. L., Thompson, D. L. Jr., Ward, T. L., Olcott, B. M. 1995. Effect of chromium tripicolinate on growth, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, plasma metabolites, and growth hormone in pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 73, no. 4, p. 1123-1130. PMid:7628956 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7341123x
Anonymous. 2001. Statistic for Windows. Version 8.0. User´s Manual. Analytical Software, P.O. Box 12185, Tallahassee, FL 32317-2185, USA.
Arvizu, R. R., Domínguez, I. A., Rubio, M. S., Bórquez, J. L., Pinos-Rodríguez, J. M., González, M., Jaramillo G. 2011. Effects of genotype, level of supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits grazing lambs. Meat Science, vol. 88, no. 3.p. 404-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.01.018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.01.018
Bednářová, M., Kameník, J., Saláková, A., Pavlík, Z., Tremlová, B. 2014. Monitoring of color and pH in muscles of pork leg (M. adductor and M. semimembranosus). Potravinárstvo, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 48-53. https://doi.org/10.5219/337 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/337
Berrio, L. F., Southern, L. L., Fernandez, J. M., Thompson Jr., D. L., Ward, T. L. 1995. Effect of dietary chromium tripicolinate on insulin binding in isolated pig fat cells and erythrocyte ghosts. Faseb Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 449.
Boleman, S. L., Boleman, S. J., Bidner, T. D., Southern, L. L., Ward, T. L., Pontif, J. E., Pike, M. M. 1995. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition, and tissue accretion in pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 73, no. 7, p. 2033-2042. PMid:7592088 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7372033x
Bunting, L. D. 1999. Chromium and dairy nutrition: what do we you know? Proceedings of Mid-South Ruminant Nutrition Conference. Texas Animal Nutrition Council, Stephenville, TX, 1999, p. 13-18.
Dikeman, M. E. 2007. Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality. Meat Science, vol. 77, no. 1, p. 121-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.011
Domínguez-Vara, I. A., González-Muñoz, S. S., Pinos-Rodríguez, J. M., Bórquez-Gastelum, J. L., Bárcena-Gama, R., Mendoza-Martínez, G., Zapata, L. E., Laandois-Palencia, L. L. 2009. Effects of feeding selenium-yeast and chromium-yeast to finishing lambs on growth, carcass characteristics, and blood hormones and metabolites. Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 152, no. 1-2, p. 42-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.03.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.03.008
Grofík, R., Fľak, P. 1990. Statistical Methods for Agriculture. Bratislava : Príroda. 344 p. ISBN 80-07-00018-16.
Honikel, K. O. 1998. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science, vol. 49, no. 4, p. 447-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0309-1740(98)00034-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00034-5
Jacela, J. Y., DeRouchey, J. M., Tokach, M. D., Goodband, R. D., Nelssen, J. L., Renter, D. G., Dritz, S. S. 2009. Feed additives for swine: Fact sheets - carcass modifiers, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and proteases, and anthelmintics. Journal of Swine Health and Production, vol. 17, no. 6, p. 325-332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.7070
Jackson, A. R., Powell, S., Johnston, S. L., Matthews, J. O., Bidner, T. D., Valdez, F. R., Southern, L. L. 2009. The effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease, or tallow. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 87, no. 12, p. 4032-4041. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2168 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2168
Jiajun, Y., Aiyun, H., Shanshan, Z., Minhong, Z. 2011. Regulation of organic nucleic acids and serum biochemistry parameters by dietary chromium picolinate supplementation in swine model. Journal of trace elements and electrolytes in health and disease, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2011.01.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2011.01.001
Kamiński, S., Rućś, A., Wojtasik, K. 2002. Simultaneous identification of ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and estrogen receptor (ESR) genotypes with the multiplex PCR-RFLP method in Polish Large White and Polish Landrace pigs. Journal of Applied Genetics, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 331-335. PMid:12177522
Kim, B. G., Lindemann, M. D., Cromwell, G. L. 2009. The effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, blood measurements, and respiratory rate in pigs kept in high and low ambient temperature. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 87, no. 5, p. 1695-1704. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1218 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1218
Kramer, J. K. G., Hernandez, M., Cruz-Hernandez, C., Kraft, J., Dugan, M. E. 2008. Combining results of two GC separations partly achieves determination of all cis and trans 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 except CLA isomers of milk fat as demonstrated using Ag-ion SPE fractionation. Lipids, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 259-273. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3143-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3143-4
Lien, T. F., Wu, C. P., Wang, B. J., Shiao, M. S., Shiao, T. Y., Lin, B. H., Lu, J. J., Hu, C. Y. 2001. Effect of supplemental levels of chromium picolinate on the growth performance, serum traits, carcass characteristics and lipid metabolism of growing-finishing pigs. Animal Science, vol. 72, p. 289-296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800055788
Lien, T. F., Yang, K. H., Lin, K. J. 2005. Effects of Chromium Propionate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Serum Traits and Immune Response in Weaned Pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 403-408. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.403
Lindemann, M. D., Cromwell, G. L., Monegue, H. J., Purser, K. W. 2008. Effect of chromium source on tissue concentration of chromium in pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 86, no. 11, p. 2971-2978. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-0888 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-0888
Lindemann, M. D., Wood, C. M., Harper, A. F., Kornegay, E. T., Anderson, R. A. 1995. Dietary chromium picolinate additions improve gain: feed and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs and increase litter size in reproducing sows. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 73, no. 2, p. 457-465. PMid:7601779 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.732457x
Marcinčák, S., Nemcová, R., Sokol, J., Popelka, P., Gancarčíková, S., Švedová, M. 2009. Impact of feeding of flaxseed and probiotics on meat quality and lipid oxidation process in pork during storage. Slovenian Veterinary Research, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 8-13.
Matthews, J. O., Guzik, A. C., LeMieux, F. M., Southern, L. L., Bidner, T. D. 2005. Effects of chromium propionate on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 83, no. 4, p. 858-862. PMid:15753341 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.834858x
Matthews, J. O., Higbie, A. D., Southern, L. L., Coombs, D. F., Bidner, T. D., Odgaard, R. L. 2003. Effect of chromium propionate and metabolizable energy on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 81, no. 1, p.191-196. PMid:12597390 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.811191x
Matthews, J. O., Southern, L. L., Fernandez, J. M., Pontif, J. E., Bidner, T. D., Odgaard, R. L. 2001. Effect of chromium picolinate and chromium propionate on glucose and insulin kinetics of growing barrows and on growth and carcass traits of growing-finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 79, no. 8, p. 2172-2178. PMid:11518226 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7982172x
Miller, S. A., Dykes, D. D., Polesky, H. F. 1988. A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 1215. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/16.3.1215 PMid:3344216 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/16.3.1215
Mrázová, J., Debrecéni, O., Mlynek, J., Bobček, B. 2013. Kvalita bravčového mäsa obohateného organickým selénom hodnotená v technologických a nutričných ukazovateľoch. Potravinarstvo, vol. 7, special iss., p. 101-106. Available at: http://www.potravinarstvo.com/dokumenty/mc_march_2013/bezpecnost_potravin_zivocisneho_povodu/mrazova.pdf
Mooney, K. W., Cromwell, G. L. 1995. Effect of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, and accretion rates of carcass tissues in growing-finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 73, no. 11, p. 3351-3357. PMid:8586594 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.73113351x
National Research Council. 1997. The role of Chromium in Animal Nutrition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 96 p. ISBN 978-0-309-06354-8.
O´Quinn, P. R., Smith, J. W., Nelssen, J. L., Tokach, M. D., Goodband, R. D., Owen, K. Q. 1998. Effects of source and level of added chromium on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 76, p. 166-171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.6566
Page, T. G., Boleman, S. L., Pike, M. M., Ward, T. L., Boleman, S. J., Southern, L. L., Bidner, T. D., Pontif, J. E. 1992. Effect of chromium picolinate on carcass traits and ageing on pork quality. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 70, no. 1, p. 218.
Page, T. G., Southern, L. L., Ward, T. L., Thompson, D. L. 1993. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and serum and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 71, no. 3, p. 656-662. PMid:8463153 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.713656x
Real, D. E., Nelssen, J. L., Tokach, M. D., Goodband, R. D., Dritz, S. S., Woodworth, J. C., Owen, K. Q. 2008. Additive effects of L-carnitine and chromium picolinate on sow reproductive performance. Livestock Science, vol. 116, no. 1-3, p. 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.08.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.08.009
Şahin, K., Küçük, O., Şahin, N. 2001. The effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on performance, insulin and corticosterone in laying hens under low ambient temperature. Journal of Animal Physiology of Animal Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 5-6, p. 142-147. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0396.2001.00314.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0396.2001.00314.x
Sales, J., Jančík, F. 2011.Effects of dietary chromium supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing-finishing swine: A meta-analysis. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 89, no. 12, p. 4054-4067. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3495 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3495
Shelton, J. L., Payne, R. L., Johnston, S. L., Bidner, T. D., Southern, L. L., Odgaard, R. L., Page, T. G. 2003. Effect of chromium on growth, carcass traits, pork quality, and plasma metabolites in growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, vol. 81, no. 10, p. 2515-2524. PMid:14552379 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.81102515x
Shrivastava, R., Upreti, R. K., Seth, P. K., Chaturvedi, U. C. 2002. Effects of chromium on the immune system. Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695x.2002.tb00596.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2002.tb00596.x
Štefanka, P., Bučko, O., Gálik, B., Čanigová, M., Debrecéni, O. 2013. The analysis of the carcass characteristics and physical-technological quality of pork after using diet with the addition of organic chromium and selenium. Journal of Central European Agricultural, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 186-196. https://doi.org/10.5513/jcea01/14.3.1302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/14.3.1302
Tang, L., Li, D., Wang, F. L., Xing, J. J., Gong, L. M. 2001. Effects of different sources of organic chromium on immune function in weaned pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 14, no. 8, p. 1164-1169. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.1164 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.1164
Wang, M. Q., He, Y. D., Lindemann, M. D., Jiang, Z. G. 2009. Efficacy of Cr (III) Supplementation on Growth, Carcass Composition, Blood Metabolites, and Endocrine Parameters in Finishing Pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 22, no. 10, p. 1414-1419. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.90111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.90111
Wang, M. Q., Xu, Z. R. 2004. Effect of Chromium Nanoparticle on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Pork Quality and Tissue Chromium in Finishing Pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 1118-1122. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1118 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1118
Wang, M. Q., Xu, Z. R., Zha, L. Y., Lindemann, M. D. 2007. Effects of chromium nanocomposite supplementation on blood metabolites, endocrine parameters and immune traits in finishing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, no. 139, no, 1-2, p. 69-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.12.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.12.004
Ward, T. L., Berrio, L. F., Southern, L. L., Fernandez, J. M., Thompson Jr., D. L. 1994. In-vivo and in-vitro evaluation of chromium tripicolinate on insulin binding in pig liver cell plasma membranes. Faseb Journal, vol. 8, p. 194.
Waylan, A. T., O´Quinn, P. R., Goodband, R. D., Unruh, J. A., Nelssen, J. L., Woodworth, J. C., Tokach, M. D. 2003. Effects of dietary additions of modified tall oil, chromium nicotinate, and L-carnitine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and bacon characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 83, no. 3, p. 459-467. https://doi.org/10.4141/a02-036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4141/A02-036
Wenk, C., Gebert, S., Pfirter, H. P. 1995. Chromium supplements in the feed for growing pigs and meat quality. Archiv für Tierernaehrung, vol.48, no. 1-2, p. 71-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450399509381829 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17450399509381829
Xi, G., Xu, Z., Wu, S., Chen, S. 2001. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum metabolites and metabolism of lipid in pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 258-262. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.258 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.258
Zhang, H., Dong, B., Zhang, M., Yang, J. 2011. Effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance and meat characteristics of swine. Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 141, no. 1-3, p. 159-169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8727-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8727-9
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.