Quality assessment of different polyethylene-packaged groundwater in the Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria for compliance with standards


  • Mutiat Balogun University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +23455948515
  • Tawakalitu Aruna Kwara State University, Department of Food Science and Technology, Malete, Nigeria, Tel.: +2348099454023
  • Olaide Akintayo University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +2347037445069 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4705-0163
  • Rasheedat Imam University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +23491408145
  • Olayinka Shukurat University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +2348173552728 https://orcid.org/0009-0001-4856-3668
  • Oluseye Lala University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +2348088970726
  • Fausat Kolawole University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +2348033764414
  • Christianah Gbadebo University of Ilorin, Department of Home Economics and Food Science, PMB 1515, Kwara State, Tel.: +2348065982341




sachet water, physicochemical, microbial, regulatory standards, conformity


There is a notable proliferation of sachet water brands in the Ilorin Metropolis of Nigeria. However, more information regarding their safety for human consumption is required. This study aimed to determine the quality attributes of sachet water produced within the Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria to ascertain their conformity with regulatory standards. Three sachet water companies were each selected from three Local Government Areas within the study area. Physicochemical and microbial analyses were conducted on the collected water samples within 24 hours of production and monthly during 4-month storage. The results showed that temperature (25.10-30.13 ℃) and turbidity (0.37-2.84 NTU) were within permissible limits. Total hardness (36.0-136.33 mg/L) and pH (6.42-8.86) significantly (p ≤0.05) increased during storage and were above standards in some samples. There were significant (p ≤0.05) variations in chlorides (2.83-8.57 mg/L), nitrates (0.15-0.64 mg/L), sulphates (4.70-7.12 mg/L), and sodium contents (10.16-18.74 mg/L) but all were within standards. While five of the nine sachet water brands complied (2-100 CFU/mL) with the limit of 100 CFU/mL for the total viable count, all the samples failed the zero-tolerance requirement for coliform. Possible fecal contamination was concluded as the main concern with the sachet water brands produced within Ilorin Metropolis, suggesting their unfitness for human consumption. The water brands may, therefore, pose severe health hazards to consumers and threaten public health. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the likely unfitness of some sachet water brands in the Ilorin Metropolis of Nigeria for human consumption, owing to fecal coliform. This underscores the need for regulatory agencies to intensify the certification process of prospective sachet water factories. Furthermore, regular inspections of certified factories and their practices and products are recommended to ensure continued compliance with regulatory standards.


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How to Cite

Balogun, M., Aruna, T., Akintayo, O., Imam, R., Shukurat, O., Lala, O., Kolawole, F., & Gbadebo, C. (2024). Quality assessment of different polyethylene-packaged groundwater in the Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria for compliance with standards. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 18, 366–385. https://doi.org/10.5219/1961