The research of whey permeate mineral profile at different stages of membrane filtration
Keywords:ash content, electrodialysis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, whey
Whey permeate powder is widely used in technologies of various line groups of food products, but the main limiting factor of its application is its high ash content. This research aimed to establish the efficiency of ash reduction and change of mineral profile at various stages of production for obtaining demineralized whey permeate powder suitable for further usage in technologies of lactose. The experiments were carried out following the referee method and the common methods used in research practice. The objects of research were cheese whey and its concentrate and permeate obtained in the process of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), electrodialysis (ED), vacuum-evaporating and spray drying. UF made it possible to remove partially Ca2+, total phosphorus, and Mg2+ from cheese whey, NF was effective in removing part of K+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Cl- and total phosphorus from UF-permeate. Using polymer membranes made it possible to obtain the NF-concentrate containing mainly lactose and increase the efficiency of ED due to their high permeability relative to water, as well as their ability to eliminate proteins and partially some ions of mineral salts. The mass fraction of ash in the finished product decreased by 93.0% compared with cheese whey, as well as Na+ and K+ by 89-94%, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ by 60-75%; the total phosphorus – by 78%; chlorides – by 70%. The obtained results allow to justify the technological operation sequence to produce a product suitable for further usage as a raw material for highly purified lactose.
Tsermoula, P., Khakimov, B., Nielsen, J. H., & Engelsen, S. B. (2021). WHEY - The waste-stream that became more valuable than the food product. In Trends in Food Science & Technology (Vol. 118, Part A, pp. 230–241). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2021.08.025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2021.08.025
Buchanan, D., Martindale, W., Romeih, E., & Hebishy, E. (2023). Recent advances in whey processing and valorisation: Technological and environmental perspectives. In International Journal of Dairy Technology (Vol. 76, Issue 2, pp. 291–312). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12935 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12935
Pastukh, O. N., & Zhukova, E. V. (2021). To the issue of using secondary dairy raw materials. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 640, Issue 3, 032022). IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/640/3/032022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/640/3/032022
Khramtsov, A. G., Volodin, D. N., Batdyeva, O. S., & Batdyev, C. M. (2021). Systematization and ranking of linguistic terminology of secondary dairy raw materials in its rational use. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 848, Issue 1, 012193). IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/848/1/012193 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/848/1/012193
Melnikova, E., Stanislavskaya, E., Bogdanova, E., & Shabalova, E. (2022). Micellar casein production and application in dairy protein industry. In Food Processing: Techniques and Technology (Vol. 52, Issue. 3, pp. 592–601). (In Russ.). Kemerovo State University. https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2022-3-2389 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2022-3-2389
Whey Protein Market Size, Share & Growth Report [2022-2029]. (2022). Report ID: FBI106555. Retrieved from https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/whey-protein-market-106555.
Miklukh, I. V., Sokolovskaya, L. N., & Dymar, O. V. (2017). Technological Aspects of the Processing of Molasses Produced in the Production of Milk Sugar. Belarusian Science.
Tepel, A. (2012). Milk Chemistry and Physics. Professiya.
Blais, H. N., Schroën, K., & Tobin, J. T. (2022). A review of multistage membrane filtration approaches for enhanced efficiency during concentration and fractionation of milk and whey. In International Journal of Dairy Technology (Vol. 75, Issue 4, pp. 749–760). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12884 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12884
Talebi, S., Suarez, F., Chen, G. Q., Chen, X., Bathurst, K., & Kentish, S. E. (2020). Pilot study on the removal of lactic acid and minerals from acid whey using membrane technology. In ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering (Vol. 8, Issue 7, pp. 2742–2752). ACS Publications. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b06561 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b06561
Chandrapala, J., Duke, M. C., Gray, S. R., Weeks, M., Palmer, M., & Vasiljevic, T. (2016). Nanofiltration and nanodiafiltration of acid whey as a function of pH and temperature. In Separation and Purification Technology (Vol. 160, pp. 18–27). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.12.046 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.12.046
GOST. (2013). Milk and milk products. Methods for determination of moisture and dry substance mass fraction (GOST R 54668-2011).
GOST. (1993). Dry canned milk. Methods for determination of moisture (GOST 29246-91).
GOST. (2019). Dairy products. Determination of protein content by the Kjeldahl method (GOST 34454-2018).
GOST. (2017). Whey powders. Specifications (GOST 33958-2016).
GOST. (2016). Demineralized dairy whey. Specifications (GOST R 56833-2015).
GOST. (2012). Cheese and processed cheese products. Determination of chloride content. Potentiometric titration method (GOST R 54045-2010).
GOST. (2014). Milk and milk products. Titrimetric method of calcium content determination (GOST R 55331-2012).
GOST. (2013). Milk. Spectrometric method for determination of total phosphorus content (GOST 31980-2012).
GOST. (2015). Foodstuffs. Determination of trace elements. Determination of sodium and magnesium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion (GOST EN 15505-2013).
ISO. (2007). Milk and milk products — Determination of calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium contents — Atomic absorption spectrometric method (ISO 8070:2007).
GOST. (2014). Foodstuffs – Determination of trace elements – Determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion (GOST EN 14084-2014).
MG. (2020). Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in food products by atomic absorption spectrometry 4.1. Control methods. (MG 4.1.3606-20).
Chen, Z., Luo, J., Wang, Y., Cao, W., Qi, B., & Wan, Y. (2017). A novel membrane-based integrated process for fractionation and reclamation of dairy wastewater. In Chemical Engineering Journal (Vol. 313, pp. 1061–1070). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.10.134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.10.134
Ramachandra Rao, H. G., Lewis, M. J., & Grandison, A. S. (1995). Effect of pH on flux during ultrafiltration of sweet whey and buttermilk. In Journal of Dairy Research (Vol. 62, Issue 3, pp. 441–449). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022029900031149 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900031149
Cassano, A., Conidi, C., & Castro-Muñoz, R. (2019). Current and future applications of nanofiltration in food processing. In C. M. Galanakis (Ed.), Separation of Functional Molecules in Food by Membrane Technology (pp. 305–348). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-815056-6.00009-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815056-6.00009-7
Yadav, D., Karki, S., & Ingole, P. G. (2022). Nanofiltration (NF) membrane processing in the food industry. In Food Engineering Reviews (Vol. 14, Issue 4, pp. 579–595). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-022-09320-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-022-09320-4
Bédas, M., Tanguy, G., Dolivet, A., Méjean, S., Gaucheron, F., Garric, G., Senard, G., Jeantet, R., & Schuck, P. (2017). Nanofiltration of lactic acid whey prior to spray drying: Scaling up to a semi-industrial scale. In LWT - Food Science and Technology (Vol. 79, pp. 355–360). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.01.061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.01.061
Macwan, S. R., Dabhi, B. K., Parmar, S., & Aparnathi, K. (2016). Whey and its utilization. In International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (Vol. 5, Issue 8, pp. 134–155). Excellent Publishers. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.508.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.508.016
Kravtsov, V. A., Kulikova, I. K., Bessonov, A. S., & Evdokimov, I. A. (2019). Feasibility of using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes to deacidify acid whey. In International Journal of Dairy Technology (Vol. 73, Issue 1, pp. 261–269). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12637 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12637
Kaya, N., Altıok, E., Selvi Gökkaya, D., Kabay, N., & Otleş, S. (2019). Demineralization of cheese whey by sequential nanofltration (NF) and electrodialysis (ED) processes. In Journal of Membrane Science and Research (Vol. 5, Issue 3, pp. 250–255). FIMTEC & MPRL. https://doi.org/10.22079/jmsr.2019.98013.1230
Al-Mutwalli, S., Dilaver, M., & Koseoglu-Imer, D. (2020). Performance evaluation of ceramic membrane on ultrafiltration and diafiltration modes for efficient recovery of whey protein. In Journal of Membrane Science and Research (Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 138–146). FIMTEC & MPRL. https://doi.org/10.22079/jmsr.2019.115152.1295
Al-Mutwalli, S., Dilaver, M., & Koseoglu-Imer, D. (2022). Effect of temperature and module configuration on membrane fouling and end-product quality of acidic whey using ceramic ultrafiltration membrane. In Journal of Membrane Science and Research (Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 1–9). FIMTEC & MPRL. https://doi.org/10.22079/jmsr.2021.521258.1428
Talebi, S., Kee, E., Chen, G. Q., Bathurst, K., & Kentish, S. E. (2019). Utilisation of salty whey ultrafiltration permeate with electrodialysis. In International Dairy Journal (Vol. 99, 104549). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104549 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104549
Merkel, A., Voropaeva, D., & Ondrušek, M. (2021). The impact of integrated nanofiltration and electrodialytic processes on the chemical composition of sweet and acid whey streams. In Journal of Food Engineering (Vol. 298, 110500). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2021.110500 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2021.110500
Merkel, A., Vavro, M., Čopák, L., Dvořák, L., Ahrné, L., & Ruchti, C. (2022). Lactose mother liquor stream valorisation using an effective electrodialytic process. Membranes (Vol. 13, Issue 1, 29). MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010029
Sharma, A., Valo, R., Kalúz, M., Paulen, R., & Fikar, M. (2018). Experimental validation and comparison of time-optimal and industrial strategy for membrane separation process. In IFAC-PapersOnLine (Vol. 51, Issue 2, pp. 741–746). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.04.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.04.002
Khramtsov, A. G., Blinov, A. V., Blinova, A. A., & Serov, A. V. (2017). Influence of the whey type on composition and properties of its mineralizates. In Foods and Raw Materials (Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 30–40). Kemerovo State University. https://doi.org/10.21179/2308-4057-2017-1-30-40 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21179/2308-4057-2017-1-30-40
Kartashova, E. A., & Sarvilina, I. V. (2019). About the prognostic role of fibulin-5 protein in the progression of pathological vascular remodeling in patients with isolated sistolic arterial hypertension. In Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii (Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp. 1003–1010), Russian Academy of Sciences.
Franceschi, P., Martuzzi, F., Formaggioni, P., Malacarne, M., & Summer, A. (2023). Seasonal variations of the protein fractions and the mineral contents of the cheese whey in the Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese Manufacture. In Agriculture (Vol. 13, Issue 1, 165). MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010165 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010165
Diblíková, L., Čurda, L., & Homolová, K. (2010). Electrodialysis in whey desalting process. In Desalination and Water Treatment (Vol. 14, Issue 1–3, pp. 208–213). Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1057
Nielsen, E. N., Skibsted, L. H., Yazdi, S. R., Merkel, A., & Ahrné, L. M. (2022). Improving electrodialysis separation efficiency of minerals from acid whey by nano‐filtration pre‐processing. In International Journal of Dairy Technology (Vol. 75, Issue 4, pp. 820–830). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12893 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12893
GOST (2016). Lactose. Specifications (GOST 33567-2015).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.