Evaluation of commercial rice grains present in the Amman market


  • Khaled Abu-Alruz Mutah University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Mutah street, 61710, Al-Karak, Jordan https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7788-9723
  • Naser Salameh Mutah University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Production Department, Mutah street, 61710, Al-Karak, Jordan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3244-2239




rice, Amman-Jordan, RVA pasting profile, dimensions, milling degree


Rice is a staple food that contributes to significant energy intake. Jordan relies on importing to provide the market with the required quantities of rice. Different varieties from different sources with various qualities are available in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of rice available in the markets in Amman city-Jordan. Twenty-five brands (three samples from each brand) were collected. Samples were evaluated regarding chemical composition, dimensions before and after cooking, percentage of different defects, pasting profile (pasting temperature, peak viscosity, peak time, trough, and final viscosity), whiteness, transparency, and milling degree. All rice samples tested comply with the Jordanian standard except for chalky kernels (four brands), heat-damaged kernels (one brand), and insect infestation (two brands). All samples that did not fulfil the Jordanian specifications were from the long-grain rice. Medium-grain rice has higher whiteness, transparency, milling degree, moisture, starch, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity than long-grain rice. On the other hand, long-grain rice has a higher protein, pasting temperature, and peak time. There were significant differences in pasting and chemical composition parameters within the two groups of grain sizes. The average elongation ratio for all samples was 1.57 ±0.14, with significant differences between different brands. Due to the higher pasting temperature and peak time, long-grain rice requires more energy during cooking than medium-grain rice.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Rather, T. A., Malik, M. A., & Dar, A. H. (2016). Physical, milling, cooking, and pasting characteristics of different rice varieties grown in the valley of Kashmir India. In F. Yildiz (Ed.), Cogent Food & Agriculture (Vol. 2, Issue 1). Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1178694 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1178694

Li, X., Mao, T., Wang, Y., Sui, X., Ren, H., Lü, H. X., Ma, C., Du, M., & Fu, D. L. (2020). Analysis Strategy for Assisted Selection of Rice Eating Quality by Using Starch Properties. Research Square Platform LLC. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-34950/v1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-34950/v1

Perdon, A. A., Siebenmorgen, T. J., Mauromoustakos, A., Griffin, V. K., & Johnson, E. R. (2001). Degree of Milling Effects on Rice Pasting Properties. In Cereal Chemistry Journal (Vol. 78, Issue 2, pp. 205–209). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1094/cchem.2001.78.2.205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2001.78.2.205

Balet, S., Guelpa, A., Fox, G., & Manley, M. (2019). Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) as a Tool for Measuring Starch-Related Physiochemical Properties in Cereals: a Review. In Food Analytical Methods (Vol. 12, Issue 10, pp. 2344–2360). Springer Science and Business Media LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01581-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-019-01581-w

Shafie, B., Cheng, S. C., Lee, H. H., & Yiu, P. H. (2016). Characterization and classification of whole-grain rice based on rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting profile. In International Food Research Journal (Vol. 23, Issue 5, pp. 2138–2143). Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Bautista, R. C., & Counce, P. A. An Overview of Rice and Rice Quality. (2020). In Cereal Foods World (Vol. 65, Issue 5). Scientific Societies. https://doi.org/10.1094/cfw-65-5-0052 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-65-5-0052

Nakamura, S., Katsura, J., Maruyama, Y., & Ohtsubo, K. (2021). Evaluation of Hardness and Retrogradation of Cooked Rice Based on Its Pasting Properties Using a Novel RVA Testing. In Foods (Vol. 10, Issue 5, p. 987). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050987 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050987

Tian, W., Guo, Y., Zhu, X., Tu, K., & Dong, P. (2022). Revealing the reasons for the pasting property changes of rice during aging from the perspective of starch granule disaggregation. In Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.12314 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.12314

Wang, Z., Zhang, M., Liu, G., Deng, Y., Zhang, Y., Tang, X., Li, P., & Wei, Z. (2021). Effect of the degree of milling on the physicochemical properties, pasting properties and in vitro digestibility of Simiao rice. In Grain & Oil Science and Technology (Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 45–53). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaost.2021.04.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaost.2021.04.002

Standards Jordan. (2015). Cereals and pulses and derived products -Rice- specifications (JS 241:2015). Jordan Standards and Metrology organization. Retrieved from http://www.jsmo.gov.jo.

AACC Approved Methods of Analysis. (1999). 11th Ed. Method 61-02.01. Determination of the Pasting Properties of Rice with the Rapid Visco Analyser. Approved November 3, 1999. Cereals & Grains Association, St. Paul, MN, U.S.A.

Gomez, K. A. (1979). Effect of environment on protein and amylose content of rice. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Chemical Aspects of Rice Grain Quality (pp. 59–68). Los Banos, Philippines, International Rice Research Institute.

Perez, C. M., Liboon, S. P., Alcantara, J. M., & Cassman, K. G. (1996). Effects of Late Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Head Rice Yield, Protein Content, and Grain Quality of Rice. In Cereal Chem. (Vol. 73, Issue 5, pp. 556–560). Wiley.

Juliano, B. O. (1979). The chemical basis of rice grain quality. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Chemical Aspects of Rice Grain Quality (pp. 69–90). International Rice Research Institute.

Juliano, B. O., Tuaño, A. P. P., Monteroso, D. N., Aoki, N., Mestres, C., Duldulao, J. B. A., & Bergonio, K. B. (2012). Replacement of Acetate with Ammonium Buffer to Determine Apparent Amylose Content of Milled Rice. In Cereal Foods World (Vol. 57, Issue 1, pp. 14–19). Scientific Societies. https://doi.org/10.1094/cfw-57-1-0014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-57-1-0014

Aznan, A., Gonzalez Viejo, C., Pang, A., & Fuentes, S. (2021). Computer Vision and Machine Learning Analysis of Commercial Rice Grains: A Potential Digital Approach for Consumer Perception Studies. In Sensors (Vol. 21, Issue 19, p. 6354). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196354 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196354

Mittal, S., Dutta, M. K., & Issac, A. (2019). Non-destructive image processing based system for assessment of rice quality and defects for classification according to inferred commercial value. In Measurement (Vol. 148, p. 106969). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2019.106969 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2019.106969

Cozzolino, D. (2016). The use of the rapid visco analyser (RVA) in breeding and selection of cereals. In Journal of Cereal Science (Vol. 70, pp. 282–290). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.07.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.07.003

Yang, X., Lin, Z., Liu, Z., Alim, M. A., Bi, J., Li, G., Wang, Q., Wang, S., & Ding, Y. (2013). Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China. In Journal of Integrative Agriculture (Vol. 12, Issue 10, pp. 1748–1756). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2095-3119(13)60338-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60338-X

Shi, S., Wang, E., Li, C., Cai, M., Cheng, B., Cao, C., & Jiang, Y. (2022). Use of Protein Content, Amylose Content, and RVA Parameters to Evaluate the Taste Quality of Rice. In Frontiers in Nutrition (Vol. 8). Frontiers Media SA. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.758547 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.758547

Hardke, J., Sha, X., & Bateman, N. (2019). B. R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2021 (pp. 269–273). University of Arkansas System.

Ponjanta, J., Chomsri, N., & Meechoui, S. (2016). Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand. In Functional Foods in Health and Disease (Vol. 6, Issue 3, p. 133). Functional Food Center. https://doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.v6i3.231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.v6i3.231

Juliano, B. O., & Pascual, C. G. (1980). Quality characteristics of milled rice grown in different countries. In IRRI Research Paper Series (Vol. 48, pp. 3–25). The International Rice Research Institute.

Windham, W. R., Lyon, B. G., Champagne, E. T., Barton, F. E., II, Webb, B. D., McClung, A. M., Moldenhauer, K. A., Linscombe, S., & McKenzie, K. S. (1997). Prediction of Cooked Rice Texture Quality Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Whole-Grain Milled Samples. In Cereal Chemistry Journal (Vol. 74, Issue 5, pp. 626–632). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1094/cchem.1997.74.5.626 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1997.74.5.626

Rithesh, B. N., Ramchander, S., Rajeswari, S., Uma, D., Robin, S., & Jeyaprakash, P. (2018). Characterization of Physio-Chemical Properties of Starch among Traditional and Commercial Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) using Rapid Visco Analyser. In International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (Vol. 7, Issue 10, pp. 1490–1503). Excellent Publishers. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.167 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.167

Corke, H., Wu, H., Yue, S., & Sun, H. (1997). Developing Specialty Starches from New Crops. In Cereals (pp. 91–102). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2675-6_12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2675-6_12

Chumsri, P., Chaijan, M., & Panpipat, W. (2021). A comparison of nutritional values, physicochemical features and in vitro bioactivities of Southern Thai short‐grain brown rice with commercial long‐grain varieties. In International Journal of Food Science & Technology (Vol. 56, Issue 12, pp. 6515–6526). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.15371 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.15371

Hu, P., Zhao, H., Duan, Z., Linlin, Z., & Wu, D. (2004). Starch digestibility and the estimated glycemic score of different types of rice differing in amylose contents. In Journal of Cereal Science (Vol. 40, Issue 3, pp. 231–237). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2004.06.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2004.06.001

Tao, K., Yu, W., Prakash, S., & Gilbert, R. G. (2020). Investigating cooked rice textural properties by instrumental measurements. In Food Science and Human Wellness (Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp. 130–135). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2020.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2020.02.001

Champagne, E. T., Wood, D. F., Juliano, B. O., & Bechtel, D. B. (2004). Chapter 4: The Rice Grain and Its Gross Composition. In Rice: Chemistry and Technology (pp. 77–107). American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1094/1891127349.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/1891127349.004

Diako, C., Manful, J. T., Johonson, P. N. T., Sakyi-Dawson, E., Bediako-Amoa, B., & Saalia, F. K. (2011). Physicochemical characterization of four commercial rice varieties in Ghana. In Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology (Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 196–202). Maxwell Scientific Organization.

Sharma, N., & Khanna, R. (2020). Rice Grain Quality: Current Developments and Future Prospects. In Recent Advances in Grain Crops Research. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89367 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89367

Pereira, R. M., Lange, C. N., Pedron, T., Paniz, F. P., Oliveira, G. S. P., Masuda, H. P., & Batista, B. L. (2020). Lead in Rice Grain. In The Future of Rice Demand: Quality Beyond Productivity (pp. 93–131). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37510-2_5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37510-2_5

Kanlayakrit, W., & Maweang, M. (2013). Postharvest of paddy and milled rice affected physicochemical properties using different storage conditions. In International Food Research Journal (Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 1359–1366). Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Mohapatra, D., & Bal, S. (2007). Effect of degree of milling on specific energy consumption, optical measurements and cooking quality of rice. In Journal of Food Engineering (Vol. 80, Issue 1, pp. 119–125). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.04.055 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.04.055

Puri, S., Dhillon, B., & Sodhi, N. (2014). Effect of Degree of Milling (Dom) on Overall Quality of Rice -A Review. In International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research (Vol. 5, Issue 3, pp. 474–489). East African Nature and Science Organization.

Liu, H., Zhou, X., Liu, J., Xu, Q., Qiu, Y., & Fan, F. (2014). Correlations between RVA profile properties and main qualities ofindicahybrid rice. In Research on Crops (Vol. 15, Issue 2, p. 324). Gaurav Publications. https://doi.org/10.5958/2348-7542.2014.00117.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/2348-7542.2014.00117.X




How to Cite

Abu-Alruz, K., & Salameh, N. (2023). Evaluation of commercial rice grains present in the Amman market. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 17, 132–147. https://doi.org/10.5219/1834