The impact of the Russian embargo on the development and specialization of agri-food trade between Slovakia and Russia


  • Elena Kašťáková University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Commerce, Department of International Trade, Dolnozemská cesta 1, 852 35, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Tel.: +421 2 6729 1498,
  • Matúš Žatko University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Commerce, Department of International Trade, Dolnozemská cesta 1, 852 35, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Tel.: +421 2 6729 1205
  • Malgorzata Agnieszka Jarossová University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Marketing, Dolnozemská cesta 1, 852 35, Bratislava, Slovak Republic



agri-food foreign trade embargo, Grubel-Lloyd index, Lafay index, Slovakia, Russia


The paper examines and evaluates the impact of the Russian embargo on the development and specialization of agri-food foreign trade between Slovakia and Russia through the evaluation of the one-factor Lafay and Grubel-Lloyd indexes. As a result of the application of the Russian embargo on imports of agri-food products, based on the calculation of the indexes, we can state that the degree of specialization of Slovak agri-food foreign trade has changed. Although in 2013 Slovakia specialized in exporting a relatively wide range of agri-food products, in 2020, their number decreased. Also, in 2020 there was no overall increase in the volume of mutual trade. In general, Slovakia's exports to Russia decreased compared to 2013. The following factors have contributed to this situation: substantial attenuation, that is, the elimination of Slovak agri-food exports to Russia based on the impact of the Russian embargo with side effects and an increase in imports from Russia but not in absolute but relative terms in the context of its comparison with Slovak exports.


Download data is not yet available.


Gálik, J., & Döme, G. (2005). Comparison of the development of agri-food foreign trade after the entry of the Slovak Republic into the EU (Porovnanie vývoja agropotravinskeho zahraničného obchodu po vstupe SR do EÚ). Agrarian external trade of the Slovak Republic yearbook 2004. Research Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics (In Slovak).

Smutka, Ľ., Rovný, P., & Hambalková, M. (2016). Foreign trade with agricultural products in the Slovak Republic. In International Scientific days 2016. The Agri-Food Value Chain: Challenges for Natural Resources Management and Society. Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Slovakia.

Overview of EU sanctions against the Russian Federation (Přehled sankcí EU vůči Ruské federacy) (2022, June 10). In (In Czech). Available at:

Russia to boycott salt from the U.S. after EU extends sanctions against Moscow (2022, June 24). In The Washington Times. Available at:

Zábojník, S., & Hamara, A. (2015). Foreign trade sanctions between European Union and Russian Federation and their influence on the economic performance of the EU11 countries (Zahraničnoobchodné sankcie medzi EÚ a RF a ich vplyv na ekonomickú výkonnosť krajín EÚ11). In Studia commercialia Bratislavensia: scientific journal of Faculty of Commerce, University of Economics in Bratislava (Vol. 8, Issue 30, pp. 275-291). (In Slovak). Available at:

Crozet, M., & Hinz, J. (2020). Friendly fire: the trade impact of the Russia sanctions and counter-sanctions. In Economic Policy (Vol. 35, Issue 101, pp. 97–146). Oxford University Press (OUP).

Skvarciany, V., Jurevičienė, D., & Vidžiūnaitė, S. (2020). The Impact of Russia's Import Embargo on the EU Countries' Exports. In Economies (Vol. 8, Issue 3, p. 62). MDPI AG.

Boulanger, P., Dudu, H., Ferrari, E., & Philippidis, G. (2016). Russian Roulette at the Trade Table: A Specific Factors CGE Analysis of an Agri‐food Import Ban. In Journal of Agricultural Economics (Vol. 67, Issue 2, pp. 272–291). Wiley.

Zhang, Y. (2013). Relation between Social Responsibility and Enterprise Long-term Competitiveness. In International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) (Vol. 8, Issue 5, p. 21). International Association of Online Engineering (IAOE).

Bajan, B., Genstwa, N., & Smutka, L. (2021). The similarity of food consumption patterns in selected EU countries combined with the similarity of food production and imports. In Agricultural Economics (Vol. 67, Issue No. 8, pp. 316–326). Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Lafay G. (1992): The measurement of revealed comparative advantages. In: Dagenais M.G., Muet P.A. (eds): International Trade Modeling. Chapman & Hill, London: 209–234.

Zaghini, A. (2003). Trade Advantages and Specialisation Dynamics in Acceding Countries. In SSRN Electronic Journal. Elsevier BV.

Alessandrini, M., Fattouh, B., & Scaramozzino, P. (2007). The changing pattern of foreign trade specialization in Indian manufacturing. In Oxford Review of Economic Policy (Vol. 23, Issue 2, pp. 270–291). Oxford University Press (OUP).

Grubel, H. G., & Lloyd, P. J. (1975). Intra-Industry Trade: The Theory and Measurement of International Trade in Differentiated Products. In The Economic Journal (Vol. 85, Issue 339, p. 646-648). Oxford University Press (OUP).

Gabrisch, H., & Segnana, M. L. (2002). Intra-Industry Trade between European Union and Transition Economies: Does Income Distribution Matter? LIS Working Paper Series, No. 297, Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), Luxembourg.

Kunzel, P., & Havrylyshyn, O. (1997). Intra-Industry Trade of Arab Countries: An Indicator of Potential Competitiveness. In IMF Working Papers (Vol. 97, Issue 47, p. 1). International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Hamilton, C., & Kniest, P. (1991). Trade liberalisation, structural adjustment and intra-industry trade: A note. In Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (Vol. 127, Issue 2, pp. 356–367). Springer Science and Business Media LLC.

Brülhart, M. (1994). Marginal intra-industry trade: Measurement and relevance for the pattern of industrial adjustment. In Review of World Economics (Vol. 130, Issue 3, pp. 600–613). Springer Science and Business Media LLC.

Thom, R., & McDowell, M. (1999). Measuring marginal intra-industry trade. In Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (Vol. 135, Issue 1, pp. 48–61). Springer Science and Business Media LLC.

Crespo, N., & Fontoura, M. P. (2004). Intra-industry trade by types: What can we learn from Portuguese data? In Review of World Economics (Vol. 140, Issue 1, pp. 52–79). Springer Science and Business Media LLC.

Falvey, R. E. (1981). Commercial policy and intra-industry trade. In Journal of International Economics (Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 495–511). Elsevier BV.

Baccini, L., Dür, A., & Elsig, M. (2018). Intra-Industry Trade, Global Value Chains, and Preferential Tariff Liberalization. In International Studies Quarterly (Vol. 62, Issue 2, pp. 329–340). Oxford University Press (OUP).

Milner, H. V. (1998). Interests, Institutions, and Information. Princeton University Press.

Manger, M. (2015). PTAdesign, tariffs and intra-industry trade. In Trade Cooperation (pp. 195–217). Cambridge University Press.

Kono, D. Y. (2009). Market Structure, Electoral Institutions, and Trade Policy. In International Studies Quarterly (Vol. 53, Issue 4, pp. 885–906). Oxford University Press (OUP).

Egger, H., Greenaway, D., & Egger, P. (2005). Trade Liberalisation with Multinational Firms: Effects on Welfare and Intra-Industry Trade. In SSRN Electronic Journal. Elsevier BV.

Database - Eurostat. (2022). Retrieved 24 June 2022, from

Business information for export and market in Slovakia (Obchodné informácie pre export a trh v SR.) (2022). Retrieved 14 November 2021, from

Cheptea, A., & Gaigné, C. (2019). Russian food embargo and the lost trade. In European Review of Agricultural Economics (Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp. 684–718). Oxford University Press (OUP).

Jovanovic, M. N. (2019). The Slow Motion Train Crash of the Eurozone Monetary Alchemy. In SSRN Electronic Journal. Elsevier BV.

Lam, S. L. (1990). Economic sanctions and the success of foreign policy goals. In Japan and the World Economy (Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp. 239–248). Elsevier BV.

Hufbauer, G. C. et al. Economic Sanctions RECONSIDERED. 3rd Edition. Washington: November 2007. 248. ISBN 978-0-88132-407-5.

Kašťaková, E., Baumgartner, B., & Žatko, M. (2018). The Impact of the Russian Embargo on its Agri-Food Trade with the EU: Analysis by Selected Indicators. In International Organisations Research Journal (Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp. 256–271). National Research University, Higher School of Economics (HSE).




How to Cite

Kašťáková, E., Žatko, M., & Jarossová, M. A. (2022). The impact of the Russian embargo on the development and specialization of agri-food trade between Slovakia and Russia . Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 16, 590–602.