Social responsibility in reducing food losses and waste in the Slovak Republic: the role of policies – the responsibility of all
Keywords:food loss and waste, cause of origin, household behaviour, poultry farm, innovative approach
The study aimed to point out the calls of the European Commission to the social responsibility of the solution of food losses and waste, to evaluate the current state of the researched issues in the Slovak Republic, to point out the trends, and propose measures to improve the situation of the food losses and waste on the poultry meat market in the Slovak Republic. The scientific hypotheses were established. A questionnaire survey was used to obtain primary data. The research object was households and agricultural enterprises of broiler chicken farming (poultry farms) in the Slovak Republic. Data from questionnaires completed by households and poultry farms were examined and processed by the sorting method. Cumulative totals, intervals, and percentage ranges were calculated in each response class. The obtained data for individual objects of research were processed by sorting using Microsoft Word tables – Excel, Office 2016. The chi-square test (χ2 test) with a contingency table according to the procedure of Social Science Statistics was chosen for hypothesis testing. The SAS program was used for statistical evaluation of the results and answers of the respondents from the questionnaires. The research shows that food losses in Slovak households were up to 40% and on poultry farms at 6.8%. Mould and rot were the most common causes of food degradation. Mortality during breed has been recorded as a cause of food waste in poultry farms. A statistically significant difference (p ≤0.001) was found in the quantity of food losses between gross household income per family member and month. Statistically, no significant difference (p ˃0.05) was found between the numbers of family members. The proposals were recommended to improve the solution of reducing food losses and food waste in households and poultry farms. Based on the application of a practical approach of households and poultry farms to reduce food losses and support innovative solutions, it is possible to achieve gentle practices in ensuring the security of nutrition, food production, social and economic sustainability as well as environmental protection in the Slovak Republic.
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. (2013). International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. The Multiple Dimensions of Food Security. Rome, Italy, FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-107917-1.
Parfitt, J., Barthel, M., & Macnaughton, S. (2010). Food waste within food supply chains: quantification and potential for change to 2050. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Vol. 365, Issue 1554, pp. 3065–3081). The Royal Society. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0126
United Nations. (2015). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development-A/RES/70/1. New York, NY, United Nations. https://sdgs.un.org/2030agenda
European Commission. (2015). Closing the Loop - An EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy - COM (2015) 614 Final. Brussels, Belgium, European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1 /2015/EN/1-2015-614-EN-F1-1.PDF
Bansal, P., & Clelland, I. (2004). TALKING TRASH: LEGITIMACY, IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT, AND UNSYSTEMATIC RISK IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. In Academy of Management Journal (Vol. 47, Issue 1, pp. 93–103). Academy of Management. https://doi.org/10.2307/20159562
European Commission. (2019). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic, and Social Committee, and the Committee of the Regions - the European Green Deal (COM(2019) 640 final).
European Commission. (2018). A sustainable bioeconomy for Europe: strengthening the connection between economy, society and the environment, updated bioeconomy strategy. European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, Brussels. https://ec.europa.eu/research/ bioeconomy/pdf/ec_bioe conomy_strategy_2018 .pdf
European Commission. (2020). Calculator for impacts of food waste prevention actions. EU Platform on Food Losses and Food Waste. https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/food_waste/eu_actions/eu-platform_en
Jurgilevich, A., Birge, T., Kentala-Lehtonen, J., Korhonen-Kurki, K., Pietikäinen, J., Saikku, L., & Schösler, H. (2016). Transition towards Circular Economy in the Food System. In Sustainability (Vol. 8, Issue 1, p. 69). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8010069
Martin, M., & Danielsson, L. (2016). Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union. In Sustainability (Vol. 8, Issue 3, p. 282). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8030282
Goggins, G., & Rau, H. (2016). Beyond calorie counting: assessing the sustainability of food provided for public consumption. In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 112, pp. 257–266). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.035
Reutter, B., Lant, P., Reynolds, C., & Lane, J. (2017). Food waste consequences: Environmentally extended input-output as a framework for analysis. In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 153, pp. 506–514). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.104
Sala, S., Anton, A., McLaren, S. J., Notarnicola, B., Saouter, E., & Sonesson, U. (2017). In quest of reducing the environmental impacts of food production and consumption. In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 140, pp. 387–398). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.054
Markard, J., Raven, R., & Truffer, B. (2012). Sustainability transitions: An emerging field of research and its prospects. In Research Policy (Vol. 41, Issue 6, pp. 955–967). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.02.013
Hebrok, M., & Boks, C. (2017). Household food waste: Drivers and potential intervention points for design – An extensive review. In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 151, pp. 380–392). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.069
Kapsdorferová, Z., Kadlečíková, M., & Švikruhová, P. (2021). Social responsibility and innovative activities in reducing food losses with regard to environmentally friendly treatment. SLovenská poľnohospodárska univerzitra v Nitre. https://doi.org/10.15414/2020.9788055222653
Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A., & Andersson, T. (2015). Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective. In Journal of Environmental Management (Vol. 147, pp. 219–226). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.048
Braun, S. (2012). Food waste: report on the situation and recent activities in Germany, Working Group meeting on food losses and food waste, Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_foodsafety/dgs_consultations/docs/ag/summary_ahac_05102012_3_susanne_braun_en.pdf
Schanes, K., Dobernig, K., & Gözet, B. (2018). Food waste matters - A systematic review of household food waste practices and their policy implications. In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 182, pp. 978–991). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.030
Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. (2019). Statistical yearbook of the Slovak Republic. Headquarters of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 690 p.
Canali, M., Östergren, K., Amani, P., Aramyan, L., Sijtsema, S., & Korhonen, O. et al. (2014). Drivers of current food waste generation, threats of future increase and opportunities for reduction. In: FUSIONS Reducing Food Waste through Social Innovation. Bologna, Italy: Università di Bologna. 189 p. ISBN 978-94-6257-354-3.
Jörissen, J., Priefer, C., & Bräutigam, K.-R. (2015). Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany. In Sustainability (Vol. 7, Issue 3, pp. 2695–2715). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7032695
Parizeau, K., von Massow, M., & Martin, R. (2015). Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario. In Waste Management (Vol. 35, pp. 207–217). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.09.019
Machate, M. (2021). Reflections on the Influence of Family Demographics on Food Waste Generation among the City of Tshwane Households, Republic of South Africa. In Strategies of Sustainable Solid Waste Management. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.93755
Sadovská, E. (2019). Analysis: The household spends a fifth of its expenditure on food every month (Analýza: Domácnosť minie na potraviny mesačne pätinu svojich výdavkov). https://www.teraz.sk/ekonomika/analyza-domacnost-minie-na-potraviny/424300-clanok.html
Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., Otterdijk, R., & Meybeck, A. (2011). Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent, Causes and Prevention. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 37 p. ISBN 978-92-5-107205-9.
Pearson, D., Minehan, M., & Wakefield-Rann, R. (2013). Food waste in Australian households: Why does it occur? In Australian Pacific Journal or Regional Food Studies (Vol. 3, pp. 118–132). Southern Cross University's School of Tourism & Hospitality Management.
Quested, T. E., Parry, A. D., Easteal, S., & Swannell, R. (2011). Food and drink waste from households in the UK. In Nutrition Bulletin (Vol. 36, Issue 4, pp. 460–467). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01924.x
Rathje, W., Murphy, C., & Rubbish, A. (2001). The Archaeology of Garbage. Phoenix, AZ, USA: University of Arizona Press. 280 p. ISBN-13 978-0816521432.
Pekcan, G., Köksal, E., Kücükerdönmez, Ö., & Özel, H. (2005). Household food wastage in Turkey. Working Paper Series, No: ESS/ESSA/006e. 2005 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/am063e/am063e00.pdf
Evans, D. (2011). Blaming the consumer – once again: the social and material contexts of everyday food waste practices in some English households. In Critical Public Health (Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 429–440). Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2011.608797
Evans, D. (2012). Binning, Gifting and Recovery: The Conduits of Disposal in Household Food Consumption. In Environment and Planning D: Society and Space (Vol. 30, Issue 6, pp. 1123–1137). SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.1068/d22210
Lebersorger, S., & Schneider, F. (2011). Discussion on the methodology for determining food waste in household waste composition studies. In Waste Management (Vol. 31, Issues 9–10, pp. 1924–1933). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.05.023
Alazawi, M. J. K., & Aljumaili, J. S. A. (2020). An econometric analysis of the demand for meat (poultry, red meat, fish) in Iraq for the period 2004 -2018 using Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). In Tikrit Journal of Administration and Economics Sciences (Vol. 16, Issue 52), pp. 258–272). Tikrit University.
Ali, B. J. (2021). Consumer attitudes towards healthy and organic food in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. In Management Science Letters (pp. 2127–2134). Growing Science. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2021.2.015
Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins, C. C. (2001). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. In Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal (Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 43–50). Organizational Systems Research Association.
Bilgili, S. F. (2002). Poultry meat processing and marketing - what does the future hold? In Poultry International (Vol. 10, Issue 41, pp. 12–22). WATT Poultra International.
Chen, P.-J., & Antonelli, M. (2020). Conceptual Models of Food Choice: Influential Factors Related to Foods, Individual Differences, and Society. In Foods (Vol. 9, Issue 12, p. 1898). MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121898
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2017). FAOSTAT Database. Rome, Italy. http://www.fao. org/faostat/en/#data/QL/
Nijdam, E., Delezie, E., Lambooij, E., Nabuurs, M. J., Decuypere, E., & Stegeman, J. A. (2005). Comparison of bruises and mortality, stress parameters, and meat quality in manually and mechanically caught broilers. In Poultry Science (Vol. 84, Issue 3, pp. 467–474). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.3.467
Petracci, M., Bianchi, M., Cavani, C., Gaspari, P., & Lavazza, A. (2006). Preslaughter Mortality in Broiler Chickens, Turkeys, and Spent Hens Under Commercial Slaughtering. In Poultry Science (Vol. 85, Issue 9, pp. 1660–1664). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.9.1660
Jacobs, L., Delezie, E., Duchateau, L., Goethals, K., & Tuyttens, F. A. M. (2017). Impact of the separate pre-slaughter stages on broiler chicken welfare. In Poultry Science (Vol. 96, Issue 2, pp. 266–273). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew361
Whiting, T. L., Drain, M. E. & Rasali, D. P. (2007). Warm weather transport of broiler chickens in Manitoba. II. Truck management factors associated with death loss in transit to slaughter. In Canadian Veterinary Journal (Vol. 48, pp. 148 – 154). Canadian Veterinary Medical Association. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC 1780231/
Caffrey N. P., Dohoo, I. R., & Cockram, M. S. (2017). Factors affecting mortality risk during transportation of broiler chickens for slaughter in Atlantic Canada. In Preventive Veterinary Medicine (Vol. 147, pp. 199 – 208). Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.09.011
Hamilton, D., Bass, T. M., Gumbert, A., Hovingh, E., Hutchinson, M., Lim, T. T., Means, S. & Malone, G. (2021). Estimates of nutrient loads from animal mortalities and reductions associated with mortality disposal methods and Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. (127 p). Chesapeake Bay Program.
Malher, X., Coudurier, B., & Redlingshöfer, B. (2020). Food losses and waste in the poultry production chain: from farm to retail. 1 p. Hal Open Science.
Hafez, H. M. & El-Adawy, H. (2019). Some current factors and problems that influence turkey production and health. In EC Veterinary Science (Vol. 4, pp. 140–147). Clarivate.
Dam, A., & Fitzgerald, S. (2017). Poultry Handling and Transportation Manual. http://www.poultryserviceas sociation.com/uploads/2/7/9/6/27967763/2017_poultry_handling_and_transportation_manual.pdf
Li, X., Zito, S., Sinclair, M., & Phillips, C. J. C. (2018). Perception of animal welfare issues during Chinese transport and slaughter of livestock by a sample of stakeholders in the industry. In A. Yildirim (Ed.), PLOS ONE (Vol. 13, Issue 6, p. e0197028). Public Library of Science (PLoS). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197028
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).