The effect of extraction time on the physicochemical characteristics of nanocalcium powder from chicken and duck eggshells
Keywords:nanocalcium, chicken, duck, eggshell, extraction
Calcium deficiency is associated with the risks of bone fracture and osteoporosis. This type of malnutrition has been a concern of governments and the World Health Organization for decades, and extensive efforts have been made to address it. There are several solutions to increase calcium intake. One is to take calcium in the form of nanocalcium. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of extraction time on the physicochemical characteristics of nanocalcium powder extracted from chicken and duck eggshells through precipitation. This research was conducted by using a completely randomized factorial design with two factors, and each treatment analysis was repeated three times. The first factor was the type of eggshell (chicken and duck), and the second was the extraction time (1, 1.5, and 2 hours). The observed parameters were physical (yield and color) and chemical characteristics (moisture, ash, calcium content, and crystalline structure). The results showed that the type of eggshell had a significant effect (p <0.05) on yield, color (lightness), and moisture content and that extraction time had a significant effect (p <0.05) on yield, color (chroma and hue), moisture, and ash content. The highest content of the crystalline structure of nanocalcium formation (100%) was nanocalcium powder from chicken and duck eggshells, with 1 hour of extraction time. The particle size of the crystalline structure of nanocalcium from chicken and duck eggshells were 41.54 nm and 24.90 nm, respectively.
Adeyeye, E. I. 2009. Comparative study on the characteristics of egg shells of some bird species. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 159-166. https://doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v23i2.44957 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v23i2.44957
Agustini, T. W., Fahmi, A. S., Widowati, I., Sarwono, A. 2011. Utilization of scallop shell waste (Amusium Pleuronectes) in making calcium rich cookies. Indonesian Journal of Fishery Products Processing, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 8-13. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v14i1.3423
Ajayan, N., Shahanamol, K.P., Arun, A.U., Soman, S.2020.Quantitative variation in calcium carbonate content in shell of different chicken and duck varieties. Advances in Zoology and Botany, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.13189/azb.2020.080101 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13189/azb.2020.080101
AOAC. 2005. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Arlington, Virginia, USA, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc.
Ariyanti, T. D. 2012. In vitro bioavailability of calcium and iron in some commercial pregnant women’s milk products. Bogor Agricultural Institute. https://repository.ipb.ac.id/
CSA, 2016. Central Statistics Agency. Census Data on Egg Production of Hens and Duck Eggs by Province. Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Jakarta. Available at: http://www.bps.go.id
Dasgupta, P., Singh, A., Adak, S., Purohit, K. M. 2004. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite produced from eggshell. In Proceeding of International Symposium of Research Students on Materials Science and Engineering, p. 1-6.
Dewi, N. S., Parnanto, N. H. R., Ridwan, A. 2012. Characteristics of physicochemical properties of yam flour (Pachyrhizus erosus) modified by acetylation with variation in concentration of acetic acid during soaking. Journal of Agricultural Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 104-112. https://doi.org/10.20961/jthp.v0i0.13014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20961/jthp.v0i0.13014
Gulsun, T., Gursoy, R. N., Oner, L. 2009. Nanocrystal technology for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 55-65. http://dergi.fabad.org.tr
Habte, L., Shiferaw, N., Mulatu, D., Thenepalli, T., Chilakala, R., Ahn, J. W., 2019. Synthesis of nano calcium oxide from waste eggshell by sol-gel method. Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 3196, p. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113196 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113196
Hilty, F. M., Knijnenburg, J. T. N., Teleki, A., Krumeich, F., Hurrell, R. F., Pratsinis, S. E., Zimmermann, M. B. 2011. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods. International Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 1, p. N2-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01885.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01885.x
Khan, M. D., Ahn, J. W., Nam, G., 2018. Environmental benign synthesis, characterization and mechanism studies of green calcium hydroxide nano-plates derived from waste oyster shells. Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 223, p. 947-951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.07.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.07.011
Khoerunnisa. 2011. Isolation and characterization of nanocalcium from the shells of local Kijing (Pilsbryoconcha exilis). Bogor Agricultural Institute. Available at: https://repository.ipb.ac.id/
Lekahena, V., Faridah, D. N., Syarief, R., Peranginangin, R. 2014. Physicochemical characteristics of nanocalcium extracted from tilapia fish bone using alkaline and acid solutions. Journal of Technology and Food Industry, vol. 25, no. 1, p. 57-64. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2014.25.1.57 DOI: https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2014.25.1.57
Lestari, D., Riyanti, Wanniatie, V. 2015. Effect of storage time and shell colour on internal quality of tegal duck egg. Journal of Integrated Animal Science, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 7-14. https://doi.org/10.23960/jipt.v3i1.p%25p
Mohamed, M., Suzana, Y., Saikat, M. 2012. Decomposition study of calcium carbonate in cockle shell. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 1-10.
Mosaddegh, E., Hassankhani, A. 2014. Preparation and characterization of nano-CaO based on eggshell waste: Novel and green catalytic approach to highly efficient synthesis of pyrano [4, 3-b]pyrans Cuihua Xuebao/Chinese.Journal of Catalysis, vol. 35, p. 351-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2067(12)60755-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2067(12)60755-4
Mushawwir, A., Latipudin, D. 2013. Egg synthesis biology, physiological, biochemical, and molecular perspectives of egg production. 1st ed. Yogyakarta , Indonesia : Graha Ilmu. ISBN: 978-979-756-954-9.
Navarro, C. R., Encarnacion, R. A., Alejandro, B. R. N., Miguel, O. H. 2009. Thermal decomposition of calcite: Mechanisms of formation and textural evolution of CaO nanocrystals. American Mineralogist, vol. 94, p. 578-593. https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2009.3021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2009.3021
Park, J. W., Bae, S. R., Suh, J. Y., Lee, D. H., Kim, S. H., Kim, H., Lee, C. S. 2008. Evaluation of bone healing with eggshell-derived bone graft substitutes in rat calvaria: A pilot study. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part-A, vol. 87, no. 1, p. 203-214. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.31768 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.31768
Prayitno, A. H., Prasetyo, B., Sutirtoadi, A. 2020. Synthesis and characteristics of nano calcium oxide from duck eggshells by precipitation method. Earth and Environment Science, vol. 411, p. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/411/1/012033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/411/1/012033
Permata, Y. M., Pardede, T. R., Masfria, Muchlisyam, Nasution, L. S. 2018. Practical guide of qualitative pharmaceutical chemistry. Qualitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of North Sumatera, Medan. Available at: https://ffar.usu.ac.id
Purwasasmita, B. S., Gultom, R. S. 2008. Synthesis and characterization of sub micron scale hydroxyapatite powder using the precipitation method. Journal of Life and Physical Sciences, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 155-167. Available at: https://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/bionatura/article/view/7734
Rahmawati, W. A., Nisa, F. C. 2015. Fortification of eggshell calcium in cookies making (study on concentration of eggshell flour and baking powder). Journal of Food and Agroindustry, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 1050-1061.
Risnojatiningsih, S. 2009. Utilization of solid waste Za fertilizer as raw material for manufacture of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Journal of Engineering Science Research, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 38-47.
Sari, W. R., 2013. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite based on duck eggshells. Bogor Agricultural Institute. Available at: https://repository.ipb.ac.id/
Seo, M. H., Lee, S. Y., Chang, Y. H., Kwak, H. S. 2009. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with nanopowdered Chitosan during Storage. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 12, p. 5907-5916. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2520 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2520
Singh, B., Sharma, Y. C., Faizal, B. 2010. Comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for synthesis of biodiesel from M. Indica oil. Scientific Paper Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 117-124. https://doi.org/10.2298/CICEQ100902061S DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/CICEQ100902061S
Sunardi, S., Krismawati, E. D., Mahayana, A. 2020. Synthesis and characterization nanocalcium oxide from eggshells. ALCHEMY Journal of Chemical Research, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 250-259. https://doi.org/10.20961/alchemy.16.2.40527.250-259 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20961/alchemy.16.2.40527.250-259
Suptijah, P., Jacoeb, A. M., Deviyanti, N. 2012. Characterization and bioavailability of nanocalcium from shell of vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Journal of Aquatic, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 63-73.
Shwetha, A., Dhananjaya, Shravana Kumara, S. M., Ananda. 2018. Comparative study on calcium content in egg shells of different birds. International Journal of Zoology Studies, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 31-33.
Tangboriboon, N., Kunanuruksapong, R., Sirivat, A. 2012. Preparation and properties of calcium oxide from eggshells via calcination. Materials Science Poland, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 313-322. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13536-012-0055-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13536-012-0055-7
Taufiq-Yap, Y. H., Lee, H. V., Hussein, M, Z., Yunus, R. 2011. Calcium-based mixed oxide catalysts for methanolysis of jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 827-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.11.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.11.011
Trilaksani, W., Salamah, E., Nabil, N. 2006. Utilization of
tuna (Thunnus sp.) bone waste as a source of calcium by protein hydrolysis method. Buletin of Fishery Product Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 34-45. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v9i2.983
Warsy, Chadijah, S., Rustiah, W. 2016. Optimization of calcium carbonate from eggshells for composite paste production. Alchemy, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 86-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24252/al-kimia.v4i2.1683
WHO, 2006. World Health Organization. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. WHO Library Cataloguing Publication Data. ISBN: 92 4 159409 2.
Yonata, D., Aminah, S., Hersoelistyorini, W. 2017. Calcium levels and physical characteristics of poultry eggshell flour by soaking in various solvents. Journal of Food and Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 82-93. https://doi.org/10.26714/jpg.7.2.2017.82-93
Zuhra, Husni, H., Fikri, H., Wahyu, R. 2015. Catalyst preparation of shell ash for transesterification of nyamplung oil into biodesel. Journal AGRITECH, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 69-77. https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9421 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9421
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.