Characterization of gliadin and hmw glutenin protein composition in coloured wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties
Keywords:coloured wheat grain, glutenin, gliadin
Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%), allele 0 (30%) and allele 2* (34%) at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%), 7+9 (29%), 20 (21%), 7 (12%) and 17+18 (2%) represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.
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