The effect of treatment conditions on color characteristics and measure of cholesterol removal from milk by beta-cyclodextrin application

Authors

  • Lukáš Kolarič Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 2 593 25 555 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1137-9717
  • Peter Šimko Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Food Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia, Tel.: +421 2 593 25 558 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1549-1319

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5219/1557

Keywords:

milk, β-cyclodextrin, cholesterol, color, functional foods

Abstract

Long-term high cholesterol intake is one of the most critical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As milk and dairy products are rich in cholesterol and are consumed on a large scale, the production of low-cholesterol content products could decrease effectively high cholesterol intake what would be one of the crucial steps in CVD prevention. Thus, this study is aimed at optimization of treatment conditions (mixing speed, time, and temperature) and β-cyclodextrin addition affecting the measure of cholesterol removal in milk. As found, the optimal conditions were identified such as mixing speed 840 rpm, mixing time 10 min, and the temperature of mixing 25 °C while the most effectivity in cholesterol decrease content (98.1%) was observed after 2.0% β-cyclodextrin addition. The cholesterol removal process did not affect considerably the lightness values L* of treated milk, slight differences were noticed in terms of a* and b* color values but ΔE values were statistically insignificant, i.e., the process of cholesterol removal did not affect visual characteristics of treated milk. So, these conditions can be applied for the production of milk base functional foods with the decreased cholesterol content.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahn, J., Kwak, H. S. 1999. Optimizing cholesterol removal in cream using β-cyclodextrin and response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science, vol. 64, no. 4, p. 629-632. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb15098.x

Alonso, L., Cuesta, P., Fontecha, J., Juarez, M., Gilliland, S. E. 2009. Use of β-cyclodextrin to decrease the level of cholesterol in milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 3, p. 863-869. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1452

Alonso, L., Fox, P. F., Calvo, M. V., Fontecha, J. 2018. Effect of beta cyclodextrin on the reduction of cholesterol in ewe´s milk manchego cheese. Molecules, vol. 23, no. 7, p. 1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071789

Alonso, L., Calvo, M. V., Fontecha, J. 2019. A scale-up process for the manufacture of reduced-cholesterol butter using beta-cyclodextrin. Journal of Food Process Engineering, vol. 42, no. 3, p. e13009. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.13009

Astray, G., Gonzalez-Barreiro, C., Mejuto, J. C., Rial-Otero, R., Simal-Gándara, J. 2009. A review on the use of cyclodextrins in foods. Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 23, no. 7, p. 1631-1640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2009.01.001

Bertolín, J. R., Joy, M., Rufino-Moya, P. J., Lobón, S., Blanco, M. 2018. Simultaneous determination of carotenoids, tocopherols, retinol and cholesterol in ovine lyophilised samples of milk, meat, and liver and in unprocessed/raw samples of fat. Food Chemistry, vol. 257, p. 182-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.139

Bhatia, P., Sharma, V., Arora, S., Rao, P. S. 2019. Effect of cholesterol removal on compositional and the physicochemical characteristics of anhydrous cow milk fat (cow ghee). International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1564762

Dias, H. M. A. M., Berbicz, F., Pedrochi, F., Baesso, M. L., Matioli, G. 2010. Butter cholesterol removal using different complexation methods with beta-cyclodextrin, and the contribution of photoacoustic spectroscopy to the evaluation of the complex. Food Research International, vol. 43, no. 4, p. 1104-1110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.02.002

Fenyvesi, É., Vikmon, M., Szente, L. 2016. Cyclodextrins in food technology and human nutrition: Benefits and limitations. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 12, p. 1981-2004. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2013.809513

Galante, M., Pavón, Y., Lazzaroni, S., Soazo, M., Costa, S., Boeris, V., Risso, P., Rozycki, S. 2017. Effect of cholesterol-reduced and zinc fortification treatments on physicochemical, functional, textural, microstructural and sensory properties of soft cheese. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 70, no. 4, p. 533-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0307.12361

Gianni, D. E., Jorcin, S., Lema, P., Olazabal, L., Medrano, A., Lopez-Pedemonte, T. 2020. Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenization combined with β-cyclodextrin in the development of a cholesterol-reduced whole milk. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 44, no. 11, p. e14845. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14845

Ha, H. J., Lee, J. E., Chang, Y. H., Kwak, H-S. 2010. Entrapment of nutrients during cholesterol removal from cream by crosslinked β-cyclodextrin. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 63, no. 1, p. 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2009.00538.x

Jeon, S-S., Ganesan, P., Lee, Y-S., Yoo, S-H., Kwak, H-S. 2012. Texture and sensory properties of cream cheese and cholesterol-removed cream cheese made from whole milk powder. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 49-53. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2012.32.1.49

Jung, H-J., Ko, E-J., Kwak, H-S. 2013. Comparison of physicochemical and sensory properties between cholesterol-removed gouda cheese and gouda cheese during ripening. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 26, no. 12, p. 1773-1780. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13255

Kim, S. H., Ahn, J., Kwak, H. S. 2004. Crosslinking of β-cyclodextrin on cholesterol removal from milk. Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 27, p. 1183-1187. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02975126

Kolarič, L., Minarovičová, L., Lauková, M., Karovičová, J., Kohajdová, Z. 2020. Pasta noodles enriched with sweet potato starch: Impact on quality parameters and resistant starch content. Journal of Texture Studies, vol. 51, no. 3, p. 464-474. https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12489

Kolarič, L., Šimko, P. 2020. Determination of cholesterol content in butter by HPLC: Up-to-date optimization, and in-house validation using reference materials. Foods, vol. 9, no. 10, p. 1378. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101378

Kukula, M., Kolarič, L., Šimko, P. 2020. Decrease of cholesterol content in milk by sorption onto β-cyclodextrin crosslinked by tartaric acid, considerations and implications. Acta Chimica Slovaca, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.2478/acs-2020-0024

Kwak, H. S., Nam, C. G., Ahn, J. 2001. Low cholesterol mozzarella cheese obtained from homogenized and β-cyclodextrin-treated milk. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 268-275. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.268

Kwak, H. S., Jung, C. S., Seok, J. S., Ahn, J. 2003. Cholesterol removal and flavor development in cheddar cheese. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 409-416. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.409

Larsson, S. C., Virtamo, J., Wolk, A. 2012. Dietary fats and dietary cholesterol and risk of stroke in women. Atherosclerosis, vol. 221, no. 1, p. 282-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.12.043

Lee, D. K., Ahn, J., Kwak, H. S. 1999. Cholesterol removal from homogenized milk with β-cyclodextrin. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 82, p. 2327-2330. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75481-0

Lee, S-J., Hwang, J-H., Lee, S., Ahn, J., Kwak, H-S. 2007. Property changes and cholesterol-lowering effects in evening primrose oil-enriched and cholesterol-reduced yogurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 22-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2007.00294.x

Lee, Y-K., Ganesan, P., Kwak, H-S. 2012. Optimisation of cross-linking β-cyclodextrin and its recycling efficiency for cholesterol removal in milk and cream. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 5, p. 933-939. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02924.x

Maskooki, A. M., Beheshti, S. H. R., Valibeigi, S., Feizi, J. 2013. Effect of cholesterol removal processing using β-cyclodextrin on main components of milk. International Journal of Food Science, vol. 2013, 6 p. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/215305

Matencio, A., Navarro-Orcajada, S., García-Garmona, F., López-Nicolás, J. M. 2020. Applications of cyclodextrins in food science. A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 104, p. 132-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.08.009

Mohamed, R. S., Saldaña, M. D. A., Socantaype, F. H., Kieckbusch, T. G. 2000. Reduction in the cholesterol content of butter oil using supercritical ethane extraction and adsorption on alumina. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-8446(99)00034-0

Pereira, P.C. 2014. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health. Nutrition, vol. 30, no. 6, p. 619-627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.10.011

Seçkin, A. K., Gursoy, O., Kinik, O., Akbulut, N. 2005. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, fatty acid composition and cholesterol of some Turkish dairy products. LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 8, p. 909-915. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2004.09.011

Shim, S. Y., Ahn, J., Kwak, H. S. 2003. Functional properties of cholesterol-removed whipping cream treated by β-cyclodextrin. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 86, no. 9, p. 2767-2772. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73873-9

Szejtli, J. 2004. Past, present, and future of cyclodextrin research. Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 10, p. 1825-1845. https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200476101825

Tahir, M. N., Bokhari, S. A., Adnan, A. 2015. Cholesterol extraction from ghee using glass beads functionalized with beta cyclodextrin. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, p. 1040-1046. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1039-2

Published

2021-03-28

How to Cite

Kolarič, L., & Šimko, P. (2021). The effect of treatment conditions on color characteristics and measure of cholesterol removal from milk by beta-cyclodextrin application. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 192–198. https://doi.org/10.5219/1557