The carcass and meat quality characteristics of Japanese quail fed a diet supplemented with powdered Lactuca seriola leaves


  • Azad Sabow Salahaddin University-Erbil, College of Agriculture Engineering and Sciences Department of Animal Recourses, Zanko, 44001, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Tel.: +9647504655099
  • Nazim Abdulla Salahaddin University-Erbil, College of Agriculture Engineering and Sciences Department of Animal Recourses, Zanko, 44001, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Tel.: +9647504537027
  • Bestoon Ahmad Salahaddin University-Erbil, College of Agriculture Engineering and Sciences Department of Animal Recourses, Zanko, 44001, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Tel.: +9647504537027



Lactuca serriola, meat traits, polyunsaturated fatty acid, quail, lipid oxidation, growth


The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactuca serriola leaves on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and its antioxidant stability of Japanese quails. A total of eighty growing quails (1-week old) were distributed into 2 equal groups consisting of 40 birds (5 replicates of 8 birds each). The first group was fed a basal diet without Lactuca serriola leaves (0 diet) and the second group received diets containing 20 Lactuca serriola leaves. At age of 6 weeks, quails were slaughtered for meat and carcass examinations. The growth performance for the quails fed with Lactuca serriola leaves diet was similar to that of a control group. Carcass measurements, physical properties, and chemical composition of quail breast meat did not differ between the control and experimental group. However, the inclusion of Lactuca serriola leaves significantly increased the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content and improved breast meat lipid stability during postmortem refrigerated storage compared to the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Lactuca serriola leaves can improve the performance of Japanese quail enrich its meat with an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and reduce lipid oxidation during storage.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abd El‐Hack, M. E., Alagawany, M., Abdelnour, S. 2019. Responses of growing rabbits to supplementing diet with a mixture of black and red pepper oils as a natural growth promoter. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 2, p. 509-517. DOI:

Abdulla, N. R., Mohd Zamri, A. N., Sabow, A. B., Kareem, K. Y., Nurhazirah, S., Ling, F. H., Sazili, A. Q., Loh, T. C. 2017. Physico-chemical properties of breast muscle in broiler chickens fed probiotics, antibiotics or antibiotic-probiotic mix. Journal of Applied Animal Research, vol. 45, no. 1, p. 64-70. DOI:

Adegoke, A. V., Abimbola, M. A., Sanwo, K. A., Egbeyale, L. T., Abiona, J. A., Oso, A. O., Iposu, S. O. 2018. Performance and blood biochemistry profile of broiler chickens fed dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder and cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powders as antioxidants. Veterinary and Animal Science, vol. 6, p. 95-102. DOI:

Ahangarpour, A., Oroojan, A. A., Radan, M. 2014. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice. International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, vol. 12, no. 1 , p. 65-72.

Alagawany, M., Ashour, E. A., Reda, F. M. 2016. 14. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on growth performance, carcass traits, blood profile and oxidative status in growing rabbits. Annals of Animal Science, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 489-505. DOI:

Al-Marzoqi, A. H., Hussein, H. J., Al-Khafaji, N. S. 2015. Antibacterial activity of the crude phenolic, alkaloid and terpenoid compounds extracts of Lactuca serriola L. on human pathogenic bacteria. Chemistry and Materials Research, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 8-10.

Aminzade, B., Karami, B., Lotfi, E. 2012. Meat quality characteristics in Japanese quails fed with Mentha piperita plant. Animal Biology and Animal Husbandry, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 20-23. Available at:

Aziz, M., Karboune, S. 2018. Natural antimicrobial/antioxidant agents in meat and poultry products as well as fruits and vegetables: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 486-511. DOI:

Krishnan, K. R., Babuskin, S., Azhagu Saravana Babu, P., Sasikala, M., Sabina, K., Archana, G., Sivarajan, M., Sukumar, M. 2014. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of spice extracts on the shelf life extension of raw chicken meat. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 171, p. 32-40. DOI:

Chan, J. T. Y., Omana, D. A., Betti, M. 2011. Effect of ultimate pH and freezing on the biochemical properties of proteins in turkey breast meat. Food Chemistry, vol. 127, no. 1, p. 109-117. DOI:

Estévez, M. 2015. Oxidative damage to poultry: from farm to fork. Poultry Science, vol. 94, no. 6, p. 1368-1378. DOI:

Gecgel, U., Yilmaz, I., Gurcan, E. K., Karasu, S., Dulger, G. C. 2015. Comparison of fatty acid composition between female and male Japanese quail meats. Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2015, 8 p. DOI:

Ghazaghi, M., Mehri, M., Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F. 2014. Effects of dietary Mentha spicata on performance, blood metabolites, meat quality and microbial ecosystem of small intestine in growing Japanese quail. Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 194, p. 89-98. DOI:

Givens, D. I., Kliem, K. E., Gibbs, R. A. 2006. The role of meat as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human diet. Meat Science, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 209-218. DOI:

Horwitz, W. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA : AOAC International, 2200 p. ISBN-13 978-093558467-7.

Janbaz, K. H., Latif, M. F., Saqib, F., Imran, I., Zia-Ul-Haq, M., De Feo, V. 2013. Pharmacological effects of Lactuca serriola L. in experimental model of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular ailments. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, 9 p. DOI:

Nabavi, S. M., Nabavi, S. F., Eslami, S., Moghaddam, A. H. 2012. In vivo protective effects of quercetin against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in the hepatic tissue. Food Chemistry, vol. 132, no. 2, p. 931-935. DOI:

National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Nasr, M. A. F., Ali, E. S. M., Hussein, M. A. 2017. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 54, no. 13, p. 4189-4196. DOI:

Nosrati, M., Javandel, F., Camacho, L. M., Khusro, A., Cipriano, M., Seidavi, A., Salem, A. Z. M. 2017. The effects of antibiotic, probiotic, organic acid, vitamin C, and Echinacea purpurea extract on performance, carcass characteristics, blood chemistry, microbiota, and immunity of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 295-306. DOI:

Partovi, R., Seifi, S. 2018. Breast meat quality characteristics and its oxidative status during storage at refrigerator temperature and growth capabilities of Japanese quail fed by Echinacea purpurea extract. International Food Research Journal, vol. 25, no. 5, 6 p.

Reda, F. M., Alagawany, M., Mahmoud, H. K., Mahgoub, S.A., Elnesr, S. S. 2020. Use of red pepper oil in quail diets and its effect on performance, carcass measurements, intestinal microbiota, antioxidant indices, immunity and blood constituents. Animal, vol. 14, no. 5, p. 1025-1033. DOI:

Rasul, N. R. 2020. Growth performance and microflora in growing quail fed diets supplemented with Lactuca serriola powder. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, vol. 48 no. 4, p. 125-133. DOI:

Sabow, A. B. 2020. Carcass characteristics, physicochemical attributes, and fatty acid and amino acid compositions of meat obtained from different Japanese quail strains. Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 52, no. 1, p. 131-140. DOI:

Sabow, A. B., Sazili, A. Q., Aghwan, Z. A., Zulkifli, I., Goh, Y. M., Ab Kadir, M. Z. A., Nakyinsige, K., Kaka, U., Adeyemi, K. D. 2016. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid‐protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat. Animal Science Journal, vol. 87, no. 6, p. 816-826. DOI:

Sabow, A. B., Haddad, H. S., Nakyinsige, K. 2020. Carcass characteristics and meat quality assessment in different quail lines fed on canola seed supplemented diets. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 90, no. 1, p. 67-73.

Shirzadegan, K., Falahpour, P. 2014. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture. Open Veterinary Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 69-77.

Valencak, T. G., Gamsjäger, L., Ohrnberger, S., Culbert, N. J., Ruf, T. 2015. Healthy n-6/n-3 fatty acid composition from five European game meat species remains after cooking. BMC Research Notes, vol. 8, no. 1, 6 p. DOI:

Vargas-Sánchez, R. D., Ibarra-Arias, F. J., del Mar Torres-Martínez, B., Sánchez-Escalante, A., Torrescano-Urrutia, G. R. 2019. Use of natural ingredients in Japanese quail diet and their effect on carcass and meat quality - A review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 32, no. 11, p. 1641-1656. DOI:

Young, K. 2009. Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in tilapia and human health: a review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 60, p. 203-211. DOI:



How to Cite

Sabow, A., Abdulla, N. ., & Ahmad, B. (2021). The carcass and meat quality characteristics of Japanese quail fed a diet supplemented with powdered Lactuca seriola leaves. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 15, 521–527.