Nutritional status of subjects with dominant plant food consumption
Keywords:vegetarian nutrition, intake of key nutrient, lipid profile, insulin resistance, antioxidative vitamin
In three groups of apparently healthy subjects – vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs), semi-vegetarians (as vegetarians with addition of white meat consumption) and non-vegetarians (control group on traditional mixed diet) were analyzed the dietary questionnaires of consumption frequency and measured the values of lipid profile, insulin resistance, homocysteine with determinants (vitamins B6, B9, B12) and plasma antioxidative vitamins (C,E, beta-carotene). Vegetarians and semi-vegetarians consumed the significantly reduced amount of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, methionine, lysine, vitamin B12 and on the other hand, they have the significantly higher daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, fiber, plant proteins, arginine, glycine, serine, alanine, folic acid (vitamin B9), vitamin B6, vitamins C,E and beta-carotene. Alternative nutrition groups vs. non-vegetarians have the significantly reduced concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin as well as values of atherogenic index and insulin resistance. The vegetarian (but not semi-vegetarian) value of homocysteine is significantly increased as a consequence of the significantly reduced and low concentration of vitamin B12. Other two determinants of homocysteine degradation were significantly increased in serum of alternative nutrition groups. The both vegetarian groups have the significantly higher plasma concentrations of antioxidative vitamins and these values are in range of effective free radical disease reduction. The results of favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers and antioxidants document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of degenerative age-related diseases.
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