The contribution of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol to the total energy value of the diet: a cross-sectional study
Keywords:calorie content, energy substrates, macronutrients, regional features, ethnicity
While eating, people receive energy, as well as the necessary nutrients. However, different food products contain different amounts of macro- and micronutrients, so their consumption can vary significantly depending on eating habits. The diets of 105 people, first-year students of the Peoples` Friendship University of Russia from six different regions of the Earth: CIS countries; Latin America; Central and South Africa; North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia; Central and South Asia; Iran and Azerbaijan - were analyzed. Nutrition was evaluated by the frequency method. The median calorie intake among all examined was 2756 kcal per day. At the same time, the proportion of proteins from the total calorie content was 15.3%, from fats – 37.5%, from carbohydrates – 47.1%, from alcohol – 0.5%. It was not possible to detect significant differences in the consumption of macronutrients or their contribution to the energy value of the diet between the regions. The exception was ethanol consumption: students coming from Central and South Africa consumed significantly more alcoholic drinks compared to students from Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova. Due to the extremely high level of dispersion within each of the studied groups, it was not possible to detect significant differences in the consumption of macronutrients, depending on the region of origin of the student. That is, intra-group differences turned out to be significantly more than inter-group differences. At the same time, the share of macronutrients in ensuring the total calorie content of the diet in this study turned out to be close to the data obtained in large cities of other countries and significantly differed from the results of the assessment of diets of rural residents. Probably, the student’s nutrition is formed largely under the influence of the urban environment and individual taste preferences; ethnic and cultural affiliation plays a much smaller role.
Ahola, A. J., Harjutsalo, V., Thorm, L. M., Freese, R., Forsblom, C., Mäkimattila, S., Groop, P. H. 2017. The assosiation between macronutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome and its components in type 1 diabetes. Br. J. Nutr., vol. 117, no. 3, p. 450-456. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517000198 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517000198
Bitok, E., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Rajaram, S., Serra-Mir, M., Roth, I., Feitas-Simoes, T., Ros, E., Sabate, J. 2017. Favorable nutrient intake and displacement with long-term walnut supplementation among elderly: results of a randomised trial. Br. J. Nutr., vol. 118, no. 3, p. 201-209. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517001957 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517001957
Blumfield, M. L., Nowson, C., Hure, A. J., Smith, R., Simpson, S. J., Raubenheimer, D., MacDonald-Wicks, L., Collins, C. E. 2015. Lowe protein-to-carbohydrate ratio in maternal diet is associated with higher childhood systolic blood pressure up to age four years. Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 5, p. 3078-3093. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053078 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053078
Galchenko, A. V., Morozova, L. D., Zaletova, T. S. 2017. Evaluation of protein and amino acid requirements, based on biosynthetic needs and nitrogen balance parameters. Nutrition, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 64-68. (in Russian) DOI: https://doi.org/10.20953/2224-5448-2017-2-64-68
Garriguet, D. 2007. Canadians’ eating habits. Health Reports, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 17-32.
George, E. S., Kucianski, T., Mayr, H. L., Moschonis, G., Tierney, A. C., Itsiopoulos, C. 2018. A Mediterranean diet model in Australia: strategies for translating the traditional Mediterranean diet into a multicultural settings. Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040465 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040465
Huth, P. J., Fulgoni, V. L., Keast, D. R., Park, K., Auestad, N. 2013. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006). Nutrition Journal, 12:116. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-116 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-116
Chemical Encyclopedia. 1999. Moscow, USSR : Soviet encyclopedias, vol. 5, 501 p. ISBN 5-85270-310-9. (in Russian)
Jakobsen, M. U., Madsen, L., Dethlefsen, C., Due, K. M., Halkjær, J., Sørensen, T. I. A., Kristiansen, K., Overvad, K. 2015. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate: protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference: a follow-up study. Public Health Nutr., vol. 18, no. 7, p. 1317-1323. https://10.1017/S1368980014001578 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014001578
Kolahdooz, F., Spearing, K., Sharma, S. 2013. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in Rural KwaZulu-Natal. Plos ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, p. e67184. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067184 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067184
Kolman, J., Rum, K. G. 2000. Visual Biochemestry, Moscow, Russia : Mir, p. 312-313. (in Russian)
Levy-Costa, R. B., Sichieri, R., Dos Santos Pontes, N., Monteiro, C. A. 2005. Household food availability in Brazil: distribution and trends (1974-2003). Rev. Saude Publica, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 530-540. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-89102005000400003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102005000400003
Lopez-Sobaler, A. M., Aparicio, A., Rubio, J., Marcos, V., Sanchidrian, R., Santos, S., Perez-Farinos, N., Dal-Re, M. A., Villar-Villalba, C., Yusta-Boyo, M., Robledo, T., Castrodeza-Sanz, J. J., Ortega, R. M. 2019. Adequacy of usual macronutrient intake and macronutrient distribution in children and adolescents in Spain: A National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population, ENALIA 2013-2014. Eur. J. Nutr., vol. 58, no. 2, p. 705-719. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1676-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1676-3
Madrigal, C., Soto-Mendez, M. J., Hernandez-Ruiz, A., Valero, T., Avila, J. M., Ruiz, E., Villoslada, F. L., Leis, R., de Victoria, E. M., Moreno, J. M., Ortega, R. M., Ruiz-Lopez, M. D., Varela-Moreiras, G., Gil, A. 2020. Energy intake, macronutrient profile and food sources of Spanish children aged one to <10 years – results from the EsNuPl Study. Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 893. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040893 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040893
Marques-Vidal, P., Rousi, E., Paccaud, F., Gaspoz, J.-M., Theler, J.-M., Bochud, M., Stringhini, S., Guessous, I. 2015. Dietary intake according to gender and education: a twenty-year trend in a Swiss adult population. Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 11, p. 9558-9572. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7115481 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7115481
Martinez, S. M., Tschann, J. M., Butte, N. F., Gregorich, S. E., Penilla, C., Flores, E., Greenspan, L. C., Pasch, L. A., Deardorff, J. 2017. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children. Sleep, vol. 40, no. 2, p. zsw057. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsw057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsw057
Matthys, C., De Henauw, S., Devos, C., De Backer, G. 2003. Estimated energy intake, macronutrient intake and meal pattern of Flemish adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 2, p. 366-375. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601533 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601533
Merkiel, S., Chalcarz, W. 2016. The need for modifying energy intake in preschool children from Pila, Poland. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig, vol. 67, no. 2, p. 179-188.
Mchiza, Z. J., Steyn, N. P., Hill, J., Kruger, A., Schonfeldt, H., Nel, J., Wentzel-Viljoen, E. 2015. A review of dietary surveys in the adult South African population from 2000 to 2015. Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 9, p. 8227-8250. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095389 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095389
Norms of physiological needs. 2009a. Norms of physiological needs for energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation. Nutritional Guidelines. Moscow, Russia : Federal Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor, p. 30-36 (in Russian).
Norms of physiological needs. 2009b. Norms of physiological needs for energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation. Nutritional Guidelines. Moscow, Russia : Federal Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor, p. 14-16. (in Russian).
Raatz, S. K., Conrad, Z., Johnson, L. K., Picklo, M. J., Jahns, L. 2017. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults. Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 438. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050438 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050438
Rustan, A. C., Drevon, C. A. 2005. Fatty acids: structures and properties. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1038/npg.els.0003894 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/npg.els.0003894
Santos, D. M., Rodrigues, S. S. P., Oliveira, B. M. P. M., de Almeida, M. D. V. 2015. Dietary availability in elderly Portuguese household. Public Health Nutr., vol. 18, no. 3, p. 392-402. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014000494 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014000494
Scarborough, P., Kaur, A., Cobiac, L., Owens, P., Parlesak, A., Sweeney, K., Rayner, M. 2016. Eatwell Guide: modelling the dietary and cost implications of incorporating new sugar and fibre guidelines. BMJ Open, vol. 6, no. 12, p. e013182. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013182
Severin, E. S. 2011a. Biological chemistry: textbook. Moscow, Russia : GEOTAR-Media, 408-410 p. (in Russian)
Severin, E. S. 2011b. Biological chemistry: textbook. Moscow, Russia : GEOTAR-Media, 329-331 p. (in Russian)
Severin, E. S. 2011c. Biological chemistry: textbook. Moscow, Russia : GEOTAR-Media, 236-300 p. (in Russian)
Severin, E. S. 2011d. Biological chemistry: textbook. Moscow, Russia : GEOTAR-Media, 559-560 p. (in Russian)
Shan, Z., Rehm, C. D., Rogers, G., Ruan, M., Wang, D. D., Hu, F. B., Mozaffarian, D., Zhang, F. F., Bhupathiraju, S. N. 2019. Trends in dietary carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and diet quality among US adults, 1999-2016. JAMA, vol. 322, no. 12, p. 1178-1187. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.13771 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.13771
Tutelyan, V. A. 2012. The chemical composition and caloric content of Russian food: a Handbook. Moscow, Russia : DeLi plus. (in Russian)
Wakil, S. J. 1962. Lipid metabolism. Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 31, no. 1, p. 396-406. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.31.070162.002101 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.31.070162.002101
Xu, X., Byles, J. E., Shi, Z., Hall, J. J. 2015. Evaluation of older Chinese people’s macronutrient intake status: results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr, vol. 113, no. 1, p. 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514003444 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514003444
Yu, A. Y. L., Lopez-Olmedo, N., Popkin, B. M. 2018. Analysis of dietary trends in Chinese adolescents from 1991 to 2011. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 5, p. 1106-1119. https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.042018.02
How to Cite
This license permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.