Consumption of food in the EU by the degree of urbanization: data visualization and cluster analysis of the EU sample


  • Lenka Maličká Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Economics, Department of Finance, Němcovej 32, 04200 Košice, Slovakia, +421 55 602 26 65



city, suburb, rural area, cluster analysis, COICOP


This paper examines the consumption of one of the COICOP classes – food and non-alcoholic beverages – by the degree of urbanization on the sample of EU countries in three periods – 2005, 2010, and 2015. The share of this class in total consumption of cities, towns, and suburbs and rural areas presents the second largest item of the total consumption of all structures in question. They examined the key variable creates an input to the analysis stated in the paper. First, the data visualization is realized by creating maps of scaled consumption of food and non-alcoholic beverages in cities, towns, and suburbs and rural areas in the three periods – 2005, 2010, and 2015. The spatial distribution of data shows, that higher shares of consumption of food and non-alcoholic beverages are obtained in CEE and southern countries in all structures and all periods. Considering that consumption of food and non-alcoholic beverages is negatively correlated with GDP per capita or household expenditure per capita it is possible to conclude that countries with lower levels of GDP per capita spend more on goods of daily use. Second, based on k-means clustering, cluster analysis is stated. Similarities between EU countries in the consumption of food and non-alcoholic beverages by the degree of urbanization and with respect to socio-economic conditions are investigated. Clusters are made for all three monitored periods. In 2005 and 2010 five clusters were identified, in 2015 their number has been reduced to four. Similarities between EU countries in the consumption of food and non-alcoholic beverages by the degree of urbanization change through time. The delayed effect of the financial crisis may explain observed changes. The obvious relocation of countries is evident when comparing clusters in the period 2010 and 2015. Besides it, the most stabile cluster is the cluster, which contains core EU countries.


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How to Cite

Maličká, L. (2020). Consumption of food in the EU by the degree of urbanization: data visualization and cluster analysis of the EU sample. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 343–350.