Functional properties of three native starches and their modified derivatives
Keywords:native starch, phthalation, gelation, amylose, pregelatinized starch
Starches were isolated from cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifollium), white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and bitter yam (Dioscorea dumentorum). Starch modification was carried out using acetic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. The native and modified starches were characterized using Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) for identification of the functional groups. Functional properties such as water absorption capacities, oil absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility, gelation temperature, least gelation capacity, amylose content and pH were determined using standard procedures. Acetylation increased the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, swelling power, amylose content, and solubility of the starches while phthalation decreased water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and solubility of the starches. Native cocoyam starch has the highest gelation temperature (85 °C) while Acetylated bitter yam has the lowest gelation temperature (74 °C). The pH of the native and modified starches was within the range of 4.14 − 6.55. Phthalation and acetylation increased the bulk density of the starches. Native cocoyam, white yam, and bitter yam starches had the lowest gelation concentration (6%). Modification of native starches will improve the usage of starch in food and non-food applications.
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