Macronutrients, micronutrients intake and inflammation in hemodialysis patients
Keywords:Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Albumin, hs-CRP, Inflammation
Inflammation in hemodialysis patients occurs since before undergoing hemodialysis. Inflammation is associated with an increase in oxidative stress. Hemodialysis patients are at risk for macronutrients and micronutrients deficiencies which can influence the increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intake of micronutrients and inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients. This study was a cross-sectional study with 76 hemodialysis patients (40 male and 36 female) who attended in two hemodialysis centers of Kendal, Indonesia. After obtaining the written consent, then patients were interviewed food intake consisting of macronutrient and micronutrient intake. Macronutrient and micronutrient intake are obtained by the semi quantitative food frequency method and classified as a deficit (<100% adequacy level) and normal/ more (≥100% adequacy level), according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis. Serum albumin was examined using the Brom Cresol Purple (BCP) method with a low category (<3.5 mg.dL-1) and normal (3.5 – 4.5 mg.dL-1). The hs-CRP serum was examined using the ELISA method and categorized as low (<1 mg.L-1), moderate (1 – 3 mg.L-1) and high (> 3 mg.L-1). A descriptive analysis was performed. The results of this study showed that 88.2% deficit energy intake, 84.2% deficit protein intake, 85.5% deficit of vitamin A intake, 85.5% deficit of vitamin C intake, 100% deficit of vitamin E intake, 98, 7% deficit zinc intake , 92.1% deficit copper intake. 63.2% subjects are low level of serum albumin and 61.8% subjects is high level of hs-CRP serum. Macronutrient and micronutrient intake in most hemodialysis patients shows deficit. The serum albumin of most hemodialysis patients shows low level. Serum hs-CRP most hemodialysis patients show high level.
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